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Introduction to Hunting: Opposing Viewpoints

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Introduction to Hunting: Opposing Viewpoints

Postby Carmelo Labadie » Wed Aug 11, 2021 12:40 am

Introduction to Hunting: Opposing Viewpoints

Hunting, as discussed in this context, refers to the practice of humans killing wild animals for provision of food, clothing, medicine, trophies, or recreation. Prior to the nineteenth- and twentieth-century industrialization of the United States, the majority of Americans lived in rural areas. A 1790 census of U.S. citizens found that 95 percent of the population lived in the countryside. 

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By 1890, census data revealed that 35 percent of Americans lived in urban areas, and that number had increased to 75 percent by 1990. The shift from rural to urban living meant a change in lifestyle. In the 1790s, most Americans hunted animals for meat and grew crops to obtain vegetables, grains, and fruit. 

By 1990, the majority of Americans no longer spent hours each day cultivating crops and obtaining food through hunting. The industrial revolution, along with the advent of interstate railway transit, made a variety of food readily available to consumers.

As Americans moved to urban areas and spent less time in rural environments raising or hunting animals for food, the issues of animal cruelty and animal rights also became more prominent. In the 1950s, organizations such as the Humane Society of the United States were formed to prevent animal cruelty. 

By the early 1970s, the movement went a step further when a group of Oxford scholars began to question whether the moral status of nonhuman animals was necessarily inferior to that of human beings and whether animals should be entitled to their own basic rights and protections by law. 

In 1980, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) was formed; its slogan was, "Animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment."

The change in the role of hunting and the rise of the animal rights movement were mirrored by a shift in the portrayal of hunters in literature, movies, and the media. Early memoirs, books, and stories about hunting celebrated the hunter's skill and tracking ability against fierce animals and nature. 

Stories by author Ernest Hemingway and U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt in the 1920s recall the drama and action of hunting in Africa and the western United States as the heroes of the stories use their wits, strength, and cunning against wild animals. 

Recognizing the need to preserve natural habitat for animals, hunters also took an active role in the nature conservation movement in literature and the legislature. Roosevelt established the national parks system in the United States, and in 1929 the Game Law was passed to regulate the hunting of protected wild fowl and animals and to limit the seasons during which game or fowl could be hunted. 

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On the whole, hunters in the early twentieth century were viewed in a romantic light as strong, moral, and skilled outdoorsmen.

In the 1940s and 1950s, the view of the hunter was mixed. In 1942, Walt Disney Studios released the animated movie Bambi, about a fawn. In a pivotal scene in the film, Bambi's mother is killed by a hunter, leaving young Bambi to fend for himself in the wild.

Around the same time—in 1954 and 1955—Disney developed a television series based on the life of Davy Crockett called Davy Crockett: King of the Wild Frontier. The series celebrated Crockett's ability as a hunter and resulted in a children's fad of wearing coonskin caps and carrying toy Crockett buffalo rifles. 

The theme song cites Crockett's heroic deeds and upbringing with the lyrics: "Raised in the woods so he knew every tree, Kilt him a b'ar when he was only three. Davy, Davy Crockett, king of the wild frontier!" At the same time Elmer Fudd, the animated character from Warner Brothers, was created. 

Rather than being characterized as a strong, skilled hunter, however, Elmer is an inept hunter, creeping through the woods with a double-barreled shotgun to hunt rabbits, namely Bugs Bunny, but who instead ends up hurting himself.

By the 1980s and 1990s, hunters were portrayed in many films, books, and news reports as predominantly rural, lower class, and uneducated. Hunters found themselves stereotyped as "a bunch of big, burly guys who wear plaid and N.R.A. [National Rifle Association] caps and say, 'Let's go out and kill some defenseless animals,'" as one woman states in a 2004 New York Times article.

Hunting is now primarily a recreational activity or sport to be performed on weekends or vacations. In his book, Mortal Stakes, Jan Dizard concludes that the majority of hunters now hunt to "enjoy recreational benefits" while "sustain[ing] and embellish[ing] [their] appreciation for the ways wildlife and humans are indissolubly linked." However, the overall number of hunters is declining, according to a 2006 survey by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A large part of the decline is due to the trend of fewer children and teens learning to hunt.

Knowing the history of hunting in the United States is important for understanding the diverse points of view surrounding this often controversial subject. The four chapters in Opposing Viewpoints: Hunting provide contemporary perspectives on the following debates: Does Hunting Have a Place in the Twenty-First Century? 

How Have Modern Technological Advances Affected Hunting? Is Hunting an Important Part of Wildlife Maintenance? and Is Hunting a Form of Cruelty to Animals? In the following selections, contemporary viewpoints have been gathered in order to provide an evenhanded introduction to the issues surrounding hunting.

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Last edited by Carmelo Labadie on Tue Sep 21, 2021 3:55 am, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: MCI Rent Increase Application (apartments, lease, tenant

Postby TenantNet » Wed Aug 11, 2021 1:19 am

Since 2019 the rules for MCI's have changed and many LLs find it no longer as lucrative as MCI's once were.

You will need to answer the application, but understand that DHCR is horribly pro-landlord, so many MCI's are just rubber-stamped.

Was any work done on the roof or facade in your memory (or the memory of older tenants)?

Was this for a roof/facade, or for a burner/boiler? Your post doesn't make sense on that. If a prior boiler was replaced two years ago, then that's probably illegal. But it might depend on if a MCI was applied for on the one from 2 years ago. Also, if they wait for a period of time before applying, it can become stale. So something that was replaced 2 years ago might not be able to have a MCI application, but a newly replaced item would be eligible.

Depending on your resources, I'd pay an architect to look at the replacement to see what work was actually done. I would not tell the LL you're doing this (assuming you can get access to it). You need to have the tenants supporting you on this; otherwise it might not be worth the effort.

If the work was not done, or not done properly (problems) or completely, or not paid for, you might have viable objections.
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