Three main categories are presented. Each category consists of these components: with no other household members, with no children under 18, with other adults and children under 18, and age not reported. The subcategory "age not reported" refers to those households for which age was not reported for all household members (excluding householder and spouse if present).
If the sex of the householder is not reported, the composition for the household is not determined; therefore, the household is included in the category "sex of the householder not reported."
Married Couple. Each household in this category consists of the householder and spouse plus another person, if any, all of whom may or may not be related to the householder.
Female Householder. This category includes households with female householders with no spouse present. These householders may be widowed, divorced, separated, or never married. Other related or unrelated people may also live in the household.
Male Householder. This category includes households with male householders with no spouse present. These householders may be widowed, divorced, separated or never married. Other related or unrelated people may also live in the household.
Condition.The following items on building condition were determined by observation by the field representative as he/she approached the building containing the sample unit and walked inside. More than one problem may have been observed for each condition item. The category "Unable to Observe" includes situations in which interviewing may have taken place at night, and the field representative could not see well enough to observe a particular condition.
1. External Walls
*Missing bricks, siding, or other outside wall material includes units in buildings with defects that can only be corrected by extensive repairs such as siding, shingles, boards, brick, concrete, and stucco. Data exclude units in buildings with materials missing temporarily due to repair/construction.
*Sloping or bulging outside walls includes units in buildings with indications of continuous neglect or serious damage to the structure. Data exclude units in buildings with slanting downspouts, sagging shutters, or uneven terrain.
*Major cracks in outside walls includes units in buildings with major open holes or cracks that could allow wind or water to enter the building.
*Loose or hanging cornice, roofing or other material includes buildings with loose trim or roofing material defects. A cornice is a horizontal molding along the top of a wall or building.
*Broken or missing windows includes units in buildings with missing or broken window panes.
*Rotted/loose window frames/sashes includes units in buildings with loose/missing putty, rotted wood, and gaps or cracks where water could penetrate.
*Boarded-up windows includes units in buildings with windows covered with wood, metal, etc. to protect against weather or entry.
3. Stairways (interior and exterior)
*Loose, broken, or missing stair railings includes units in buildings with any railings that are not secured tightly enough to use with complete confidence.
* Loose, broken, or missing steps includes units in buildings with any loose, broken, or missing steps.
* No stairways includes units in buildings without stairways.
* Sagging or sloping floors includes units in buildings with sagging/sloping floors due to excessive wear, age, or possible structural damage.
* Slanted or shifted doorsills or door frames includes units in buildings with slanted or shifting doorsills or frames that may be separating from the door.
* Deep wear in floor causing depressions includes units in buildings with defects that are due to advanced age or excessive use causing depressions in the floor.
* Holes or missing flooring includes units in buildings with defects that may be due to rotten or broken wood, faulty masonry, or rodent damage.
5. Overall Condition of Building
* Building condition is classified as sound, deteriorating, or dilapidated. In the tabulations, deteriorating and sound are combined into the category "not dilapidated," based on the presence of observed defects. Sound buildings have no defects or slight defects only, such as cracked window panes or missing paint. Deteriorating buildings show a lack of proper upkeep that cannot be corrected by the normal maintenance. One or more intermediate defects, such as rotted or loose window frames or broken or missing interior stair risers, would cause a building to be classified as "deteriorating." Dilapidated buildings do not provide safe and adequate shelter to the occupants. A structure was rated dilapidated if it showed one or more critical defects or a combination of intermediate defects or inadequate original construction.
New York City structure class definitions are prepared by the New York City Department of Housing Preservation, Division of Policy Analysis and Research.
The New York State Multiple Dwelling Law (MDL) assigns a structure class designation to all "multiple dwellings," that is, all buildings that have three or more residential dwelling units. A "class A" multiple dwelling is used, as a rule, for permanent residence purposes. A "class B" multiple dwelling is used, as a rule, transiently, as the more or less temporary home of individuals or families who are lodged without meals. In addition, the Multiple Dwelling Law distinguishes between: a) "tenements," which are pre-1929 residential structures built originally as residential buildings, b) "post-1929 multiple dwellings" which are residential structures built after 1929, c) "converted dwellings" which are multiple dwellings that have been converted from structures that were originally 1-2 family dwellings, and d) "altered dwellings" which are multiple dwellings that have been altered from structures that were used for commercial or other non-residential purposes.
The structure class categories used for the 1993 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey are based on the Multiple Dwelling Law and are defined as follows:
Old Law Tenement (built before 1901) -A "class A" multiple dwelling constructed before 1901 and subject to the regulations of the Tenement House Acts of 1867 and 1879. These buildings were usually designed to fit the maximum number of rooms on the standard 25' x 100' lot, with "railroad flat" floor plans, having rooms lined up like cars on a train. These plans offered little light or ventilation for interior rooms. Most of the buildings were six stories or less, with four apartments per floor. There were minimum standards regarding ventilation, fire escapes, sanitation, and basement units.
New Law Tenement (built 1901-1929) - A "class A" multiple dwelling constructed between 1901 and 1929 and subject to new standards for ventilation, sanitation, and fire safety contained in the Tenement House Act of 1901. Distinguished from the Old Law tenement in terms of reduction of hazardous conditions and improved access to light and air. Typically, these structures were larger than Old Law Tenements, built on lots at least 40 feet wide, with courtyards or double sized air shafts to meet the enhanced ventilation standards.
Multiple Dwelling Built After 1929 (including public housing)- A "class A" multiple dwelling constructed after 1929 and subject to the regulations of the Multiple Dwelling Law of 1929. This law codified standards for high rise apartments, whether for tenements or luxury buildings. This law made "mechanical ventilation" an acceptable substitute for windows in corridors and baths, increased height and bulk limits, and legitimated the double-loaded corridor, in which a series of apartments open onto an interior hallway with no windows.
Apartment Hotel Built Before 1929 - A "class A" multiple dwelling constructed before 1929 that has hotel-type amenities such as a front desk, maid service, or linen service.
One-two Family Dwelling Converted to Apartments - A "class A" multiple dwelling that was converted from a dwelling that previously had fewer than three residential units.
Non-residential Building Altered to Apartments - A "class A" multiple dwelling that was altered from a non-residential building that previously had no residential units.
Tenement Building Used for Single Room Occupancy - A "class A" multiple dwelling with units that are being used for single room occupancy pursuant to section 248 of the Multiple Dwelling Law. Section 248 specifies the conditions under which "class A" multiple dwellings may be used for single room occupancy. Single room occupancy is the occupancy by one or two persons of a single room, or of two or more rooms which are joined together, separated from all other rooms within an apartment in a multiple dwelling, so that the occupant(s) reside separately and independently of the other occupant(s) of the same apartment. When a "class A" multiple dwelling is used wholly or in part for a single room occupancy, it remains a "class A" multiple dwelling.
One-two Family Dwelling Converted to Rooming House - A "class B" multiple dwelling that was converted from a dwelling that previously had fewer than three residential units. A rooming house is a multiple dwelling, other than a hotel, having fewer than thirty sleeping rooms and in which persons either individually or as families are housed for hire or otherwise with or without meals.
Miscellaneous Class B Structure - This includes all other "class B" multiple dwellings such as old law and new law residential apartment buildings converted for single room occupancy, but not pursuant to section 248 of the Multiple Dwelling Law; lodging houses; rooming houses; hotels; and commercial buildings altered for residential single room occupancy use. A lodging house is a multiple dwelling, other than a hotel, a rooming house, or a furnished rooming house, in which persons are housed for hire for a single night, or for less than a week at one time, or any part of which is let for any person to sleep in for any term less than a week. An inn with fewer than thirty sleeping rooms is a rooming house. A hotel is an inn having thirty or more sleeping rooms.