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NEW YORK STATE
MULTIPLE DWELLING LAW

Chapter 713 of the Laws of 1929, as amended


                            ARTICLE 7
                            TENEMENTS

Section             210. Application of article seven
                         and other provisions to tenements.

                             TITLE 1
                          LIGHT AND AIR

Section             211. Height and bulk.
                    212. Yards and courts.
                    213. Lighting and ventilation of rooms.
                    214. Size of rooms.
                    215. Alcoves.
                    216. Rooms in basements and cellars.
                    217. Lighting and ventilation of
                         public halls and stairs.
                    218. Alterations.

                             TITLE 2
                         FIRE PROTECTION

Section             230. Chimneys and fireplaces.
                    231. Egress.
                    232. Fire-escapes.
                    233. Bulkheads and scuttles.
                    234. Stairs and public halls.
                    235. Stairs in non-fireproof tenements.
                    236. Stairs in fireproof tenements.
                    237. Stair construction.
                    238. Stair and entrance halls.
                    239. Tower fire-escapes and
                         supplemental stairs.
                    240. First tier of beams.
                    241. Partitions; fire-stopping.
                    242. Cellar and basement stairs in
                         non-fireproof tenements.
                    243. Cellar and basement stairs in
                         fireproof tenements.
                    244. Spaces under stairs.
                    245. Cellar entrance.

                            TITLE 2-A
                      SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY

Section             248. Single room occupancy.

                             TITLE 3
                           SANITATION

Section             250. Water-closets.
                    251. Vent flues.
                    252. Privacy.

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Sec. 210. Application of article seven and other provisions to
          tenements.

Except as provided in section two hundred forty-eight, the
provisions of this article shall apply only to tenements, as
defined in subdivision eleven of section four, occupied as such
before April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine. Unless in
this article otherwise specifically prescribed, none of its
provisions shall be deemed to require any structural alteration
in any tenement erected after April eleventh, nineteen hundred
one and lawfully occupied as such on April eighteenth, nineteen
hundred twenty-nine. Nothing in this article shall apply to
converted dwellings. In addition to the provisions of this
article, the following enumerated articles and sections shall, to
the extent required therein, apply to tenements:

     Article 1.     Introductory provisions; definitions
     2.             Miscellaneous application provisions
     7-a.           Temporary provisions
     8.             Requirements and remedies
     9.             Registry of names and service of papers
     10.            Prostitution
     11.            Laws repealed; saving clause; legislative
                    intent; effect

     Sec. 28.       Two or more buildings on same lot
     29.            Painting of courts and shafts
     31.            Size of rooms--subdivision six
     33.            Cooking spaces
     34.            Rooms in basements and cellars
     35.            Entrance doors and lights
     37.            Artificial hall lighting
     51.            Shafts, elevators and dumbwaiters
     52.            Stairs
     53.            Fire-escapes
     55.            Wainscoting
     56.            Frame buildings and extensions
     57.            Bells; mail receptacles
     58.            Incombustible materials
     59.            Bakeries and fat boiling
     60.            Motor vehicle storage
     61.            Business uses
     62.            Parapets, guard railings and wires--
                    subdivision two
     75.            Water supply
     76.            Water-closet and bath accommodations
     77.            Plumbing and drainage
     78.            Repairs
     79.            Heating
     80.            Cleanliness
     81.            Receptacles for waste matter
     83.            Janitor or housekeeper


                             TITLE 1
                          LIGHT AND AIR

Sec. 211. Height and bulk.

1.   No tenement shall be increased in height so that its height
     shall exceed by more than one-half the width of the widest
     street upon which it stands. Except as otherwise provided in
     subdivision four of this section, no non-fireproof tenement
     shall be increased in height so that it shall exceed five
     stories, except that any tenement may be increased to any
     height permitted for multiple dwellings erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, if such tenement
     conforms to the provisions of this chapter governing like
     multiple dwellings erected after such date.

2.   If there are bulkheads, superstructures or penthouses
     exceeding ten feet in height or exceeding in aggregate area
     ten per centum of the area of the roof, the measurement of
     height shall be taken to the top of such bulkhead,
     superstructure or penthouse, except that this shall not
     apply to elevator enclosures not exceeding twenty-three feet
     in height used solely for elevator purposes, nor to open
     pergolas or similar open ornamental treatment of roof-
     gardens or playgrounds.

3.   In a fireproof tenement house in which one or more passenger
     elevators are operated, penthouses may be erected on the
     main roof. Such penthouses shall be set back at least five
     feet from the front walls and ten feet from the rear walls
     of the dwelling and at least three feet from any court wall.
     Such penthouses shall have a clear inside height of not less
     than nine feet from finished floor to finished ceiling, and
     shall not exceed twelve feet in height from the high point
     of the main roof to the highest point of the penthouse roof.
     Such penthouses shall not be deemed to affect the
     measurement of height of the dwelling. All such penthouses
     shall be entirely fireproof except that windows shall not be
     required to be glazed with wire glass.

4.   Any non-fireproof old-law tenement five stories in height
     may be increased in number of stories to six provided that
     such increase in number of stories does not result in an
     increase in the height of the roof beams above the curb
     level. In any tenement so altered, the first floor above the
     lowest cellar, or, if there be no cellar, above the basement
     or other lowest story, shall be fireproof. Any yard or court
     of such altered tenement shall not be less in any dimension
     than the minimum dimensions prescribed in section twenty-
     six.

Sec. 212. Yards and courts.

1.   No tenement shall be enlarged or its lot diminished in any
     way which would leave any yard or court less in any
     dimension than the minimum dimensions prescribed for yards
     or courts in section twenty-six.

     The restrictions of this subdivision shall not apply to
     tenements erected after April twelfth, nineteen hundred one,
     on lots which run through from one street to another street
     and do not exceed one hundred feet in depth.

2.   Any court constructed on or after December fifteenth,
     nineteen hundred sixty-one in a tenement to ventilate any
     room, public hall, water-closet compartment or bathroom
     shall be of the dimensions prescribed in section twenty-six,
     and such court shall under no circumstances be roofed or
     covered over at the top. Every such court, if an inner
     court, shall be provided at the bottom with one or more
     horizontal air-intakes constructed as provided in section
     twenty-six.

3.   Any shaft or court constructed after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, which is used to light or
     ventilate any room occupied for living purposes in any old-
     law tenement shall be at least twenty-five square feet in
     area and four feet in width in every part, and shall under
     no circumstances be roofed or covered over at the top. Every
     such shaft shall be provided at the bottom with a horizontal
     air-intake or duct at least four square feet in area
     communicating directly with a street or yard and so arranged
     as to be easily cleaned.

4.   In every old-law tenement there shall be a door at the
     bottom of every shaft and inner court giving access to the
     shaft or court and whenever the shaft or inner court is less
     than two hundred square feet in area or ten feet in any
     dimension, such door and its assembly shall be fireproof
     with the door self-closing. Where a window or door existing
     on April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, gives
     proper access to such a shaft or court, such window or door
     shall be deemed sufficient.

Sec. 213. Lighting and ventilation of rooms.

1.   No tenement, its lot or any room, public hall or stairs
     therein shall be so altered as to have its light or
     ventilation diminished in any way not approved by the
     department.

2.   In every tenement erected after April twelfth, nineteen
     hundred one, every stair hall, public hall and living room
     and at least one water-closet compartment or bathroom
     containing a water-closet in each apartment, shall have at
     least one window opening directly upon a street or upon a
     lawful yard or court existing on April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twenty-nine. Such window shall be so located as to
     properly light all portions of such hall, room or
     compartment. Every part of an apartment of three rooms or
     less in such a tenement shall be within eighteen feet of a
     street or yard or have a window opening upon a lawful inner
     or outer court existing on April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twenty-nine. When a room in a tenement opens upon an
     inner court on a lot line and less than ten feet wide from
     the lot line to the opposite wall of the dwelling, such room
     shall be provided with a sash window communicating with
     another room in the same apartment. Such window shall
     contain at least ten square feet of glazed surface and be
     made so as to open readily.

3.   No room in any old-law tenement shall be occupied for living
     purposes unless it meets the conditions in one of the
     following paragraphs:

     a.   Such room has a window opening directly upon a street,
          or upon a yard at least four feet in depth, or above
          the roof of an adjoining building, or upon a court or
          shaft at least twenty square feet in area open to the
          sky.

     b.   Such room is located on the top story and is adequately
          lighted by a ventilating skylight opening directly to
          the outer air.

     c.   Such room has a sash window opening directly into an
          immediately adjoining room in the same apartment which
          latter room opens directly on a street or yard at least
          four feet in depth. Such window shall have a vertically
          sliding pulley-hung sash not less than three feet by
          five feet, except that when it is impossible to
          construct a window of such size, the department may
          permit such window to be narrower. Both halves of the
          sash shall be made so as to open readily, and the lower
          half shall be glazed with translucent glass, or with
          obscure wire glass if the department shall so require.
          So far as possible such window shall be in line with
          windows in outer rooms opening on a street or yard, so
          as to afford a maximum of light and ventilation.

     d.   Such room has an alcove opening, of no less dimension
          than required for such a sash window, to such an
          adjoining room, in addition to the usual door openings.

4.   In every existing tenement the department, in addition to
     the requirements of subdivision four of section eighty, may,
     as often as it deems necessary, require the walls and
     ceilings of every room that does not open directly on a
     street to be kalsomined or painted white to improve the
     lighting of such room.

5.   Notwithstanding anything in this section to the contrary, no
     room in any old-law tenement in an apartment which is vacant
     on June thirtieth, nineteen hundred sixty, or thereafter
     becomes vacant, and, on and after June thirtieth, nineteen
     hundred seventy no room in any old-law tenement shall be
     used for living purposes unless such room shall have a
     window opening directly upon the street, or upon a yard not
     less than four feet deep, or above the roof of an adjoining
     building, or upon a court or shaft of not less than twenty
     square feet in area, open to the sky without roof or
     skylight, unless such room is located on the top floor and
     is adequately lighted and ventilated by a skylight opening
     directly to the outer air.

     An alcove shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of
     this subdivision if (1) it opens directly into an
     immediately adjoining room in the same apartment, and (2)
     such adjoining room opens directly on a street or yard, and
     (3) a single unbroken open space occupies at least sixty per
     centum of the area of the vertical plane between the alcove
     and such adjoining room. The required open space between any
     such alcove and an adjoining room through which it receives
     light and ventilation shall not be obstructed by any
     curtain, portiere, fixed or movable partition or other
     contrivance or device.


Sec. 214. Size of rooms.

1.   In every tenement erected after April twelfth, nineteen
     hundred one, the sizes of living rooms shall meet the
     following requirements:

     a.   In each apartment there shall be at least one living
          room containing at least one hundred twenty square feet
          of clear floor area, and every other living room except
          a kitchen shall contain at least seventy square feet of
          clear floor area.

     b.   Every living room which contains less than eighty
          square feet of clear floor area or which is located in
          the cellar or basement shall be at least nine feet
          high, and every other living room at least eight feet
          high; these measurements to be taken from finished
          floor to finished ceiling.

     c.   Every living room shall have a least horizontal
          dimension of at least six feet and, if the tenement was
          erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
          twelve, of at least seven feet; except that the minimum
          horizontal dimension of any kitchen and of a maid's or
          servant's sleeping room in a fire-proof tenement in
          which one or more passenger elevators are operated,
          shall be six feet.

2.   In any tenement, apartments containing three or more rooms
     may have dining bays, which shall not exceed fifty-five
     square feet in floor surface area and shall not be deemed
     separate rooms or subject to the requirements for separate
     rooms or alcoves. Every such dining bay shall be equipped
     with such appropriate permanent fittings as may be required
     by the department and shall also be provided with at least
     one window opening directly upon a street or upon a yard or
     court which was lawful on April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine. The area of such window shall be one-eighth at
     least of the floor surface area of such dining bay. No
     dining bay shall be permitted in any apartment containing
     less than three rooms.


Sec. 215. Alcoves.

No part of any room shall be enclosed or subdivided, wholly or in
part, by a curtain, portiere, fixed or movable partition or other
contrivance or device unless each such enclosure or subdivision
shall contain a separate window conforming to the provisions of
section thirty for rooms in multiple dwellings erected after
April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, and have a clear
floor area of at least seventy square feet.


Sec. 216. Rooms in basements and cellars.

No room in the basement or cellar of any tenement shall be
occupied for living purposes unless there is a written permit
therefor as provided in subdivision five of section three hundred
and it either is part of an apartment which complies with the
conditions of subdivision six of section thirty-four or complies
with the following conditions:

1.   a.   There shall be appurtenant to every such room a
          water-closet constructed and accessible in accordance
          with the provisions of section seventy-six for
          dwellings erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
          hundred twenty-nine.

     b.   Every such room and all cellars and basements shall be
          lighted and ventilated to the satisfaction of the
          department.

2.   If such room is in a tenement erected after April twelfth,
     nineteen hundred one:

     a.   Such room shall be at least nine feet high in every
          part from floor to ceiling.

     b.   Every part of the ceiling of such room shall be at
          least four feet six inches above the curb level of the
          street in front of such part when such room or the
          apartment containing it is located in the front part of
          the dwelling, and at least two feet above such curb
          level in front of the dwelling when such room or the
          apartment containing it is located in the rear of the
          dwelling and the yard is less than sixty feet in depth
          and does not extend to a street along its entire width.

     c.   The level of any yard or court upon which such a room
          or apartment opens shall conform to the requirements of
          subdivision eight of section twenty-six.

     d.   Every such room shall have a window opening upon a
          street, yard or court, and shall be an integral part of
          an apartment containing a room with a window opening
          directly upon a street or yard or upon an outer court
          at least eighteen feet in width and not more than
          thirty feet in depth or upon a larger outer court whose
          depth does not exceed its width by more than one-half.

     e.   Except when the yard is sixty feet or more in depth
          there shall be not more than one apartment in any
          cellar. It shall contain not more than five rooms and
          bath, and no such room shall open upon any court less
          than five feet six inches in width. Every part of such
          apartment shall either be located within twenty-five
          feet of the inner line of the front or rear wall of the
          dwelling or have a window opening upon a court which is
          at least twelve feet in width. No other rooms in the
          cellar shall be occupied for living purposes.

     f.   The area of every window in such a room shall be at
          least twelve square feet, and the total area of windows
          in every such room shall be at least one-eighth of the
          total floor area of the room. At least half of each
          window shall be made to open, and the top of each
          window shall be within twelve inches of the ceiling.

     g.   All walls enclosing such room shall be dampproof and
          its floor dampproof and waterproof.  The dampproofing
          and waterproofing shall run through and up the walls to
          the ground level.

     h.   The entire cellar, or lowest story if there be no
          cellar, shall be properly constructed so as to prevent
          dampness or water from entering.

3.   If such room is in the cellar of any old-law tenement either
     the conditions enumerated in subdivision two or the
     following conditions shall be complied with:

     a.   Such room shall be at least eight feet high in every
          part from floor to ceiling.

     b.   Every part of the ceiling of every such room shall be
          at least four feet above the surface of the street in
          front of every part of such room, or at least half the
          height of such room shall be everywhere above the
          highest level of the ground outside of and adjoining
          every part of the exterior wall of such room for a
          distance of thirty feet measured at a right angle to
          the outer surface of such wall.

     c.   Such adjoining ground shall be effectively drained and
          shall be open and unoccupied in every part.

     d.   Such room shall have a window or windows opening
          directly to the required unoccupied area of ground
          outside of and adjoining such room or to a street or
          yard. Every such window shall be made so as to open
          readily and such window or windows shall provide at
          least twelve square feet of clear openings for
          ventilation.

     e.   Such room shall be thoroughly dry and fit for human
          habitation.

     f.   If the tenement is over marshy ground, or ground on
          which water lies or on which there is upward water
          pressure, the entire cellar, or lowest story if there
          be no cellar, shall be made dampproof and waterproof.

4.   If such room is in the basement of any old-law tenement the
     provisions of subdivision one and in addition the provisions
     of subdivision two or of subdivision three, or the
     provisions of paragraph f of subdivision three and of either
     of the following paragraphs, shall be complied with:

     a.   Such room shall be everywhere seven feet or more in
          height from floor to ceiling and occupied solely by a
          family which occupies the entire story above, and such
          room shall not be used for sleeping purposes; or

     b.   Such room shall be everywhere seven feet six inches or
          more in height from floor to ceiling and shall have a
          window or windows opening directly to a street, or to a
          yard at least twelve feet in depth, or to a court at
          least six feet in its least dimension and twelve feet
          in its greatest dimensions; every such windows shall be
          made so as to open readily; such window or windows
          shall provide at least twelve square feet of clear
          opening for ventilation, and the apartment containing
          such room shall have one or more rooms opening upon a
          street or yard.

5.   Notwithstanding any provisions of this section or of
     subdivision five of section three hundred of this chapter,
     an apartment or room in a cellar or basement which was
     occupied for living purposes on April first, nineteen
     hundred fifty-three may thereafter continue to be occupied
     for such purposes until July first, nineteen hundred sixty-
     seven, upon the issuance of a joint certificate by the
     department and the department of health. Such certificate
     shall be renewed for any such apartment or room which
     continues to be occupied in an old-law tenement after June
     thirtieth, nineteen hundred fifty-seven. The certificate
     shall indicate their joint belief that such occupancy is not
     detrimental to life and health with due regard to the
     following conditions:

     a.   that the apartment or room is reasonably lighted and
          ventilated,

     b.   that adequate sanitary facilities are provided,
          including water supply and water closet accommodations,

     c.   that the premises are clean and free from rodents and
          vermin,

     d.   that the walls and ceilings are sound and reasonably
          free of dampness and there is a minimum of seven feet
          in height from floor to ceiling,

     e.   that the apartment or room is adequately heated from a
          central heating system or by other approved means,

     f.   that the structural arrangement, including egress
          facilities, of the apartment or room does not
          constitute a fire hazard,

     g.   that notwithstanding the provisions of this
          subdivision, any apartment occupied pursuant to the
          provisions of this subdivision which becomes vacant on
          or after June first, nineteen hundred fifty-five shall
          not thereafter be occupied for dwelling purposes. This
          paragraph shall also apply to any room which becomes
          vacant on or after June first, nineteen hundred fifty-
          six.


Sec. 217. Lighting and ventilation of public halls and stairs.

1.   In every tenement erected after April twelfth, nineteen
     hundred one, which exceeds four stories in height or is
     occupied by three families or more on any story, every
     public hall shall have at least one window opening directly
     upon a street, yard or court. Such window shall be located
     at the end of the hall and at right angles to its length,
     with an additional window in each thirty feet of hall or
     fraction thereof beyond the first sixty feet from such end
     window if the tenement was erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twelve; or, if the window is not thus
     located at the end of the hall, there shall be at least one
     window opening directly upon a street, yard or court in
     every twenty feet of the length of the hall or fraction
     thereof, measured from one end of hall; but the foregoing
     provisions shall not apply to that portion of an entrance
     hall between the entrance and the first flight of stairs if
     the entrance door contains five square feet or more of
     glazed surface.

2.   When the length of any recess or return off of a public hall
     in such a tenement does not exceed twice its width, no
     window shall be required therein. But wherever the length of
     a recess or return exceeds twice its width there shall be an
     additional window or windows meeting the requirements for a
     separate public hall.

3.   Except as provided in subdivision four, a tenement erected
     after April twelfth, nineteen hundred one, which is four
     stories or less in height and occupied by not more than two
     families on any story shall either have windows in its
     public halls as above provided or a stairwell twelve inches
     or more in width extending from the entrance story to the
     roof. In such a tenement, except as provided in subdivision
     four, every entrance door shall contain five square feet or
     more of glazed surface, and all doors leading from the
     public halls shall be provided with translucent glass panels
     five square feet or more in area for each door and fixed
     transoms of translucent glass over each door.

4.   Neither such windows nor such a stairwell shall be required
     in cities of one million or more population in tenements
     which do not exceed three stories in height or fifty-five
     feet in depth and which are occupied by not more than one
     family on any story and in which the stairs descend in a
     straight and continuous run from the top story to the
     entrance story with proper landings at each story. Such
     tenements shall not be required to have glass panels or
     transoms in the doors leading from the public halls.

5.   In every public hall that is provided with a window or
     windows in a tenement erected after April twelfth, nineteen
     hundred one, at least one such window shall be at least two
     feet six inches wide and five feet high.

6.   In every such tenement there shall be provided, at every
     floor level, a window opening upon a street, yard, court or
     space above a setback to light and ventilate every stair.
     Every such required window shall be of the size required by
     subdivision five, except that a window opening upon a street
     need be only four feet high. On the top story a ventilating
     skylight of the same dimensions shall be accepted in lieu of
     a window for that story.

7.   In every such tenement there shall be in the roof, directly
     over each stairwell, a ventilating skylight provided with
     ridge ventilators having an opening of at least forty square
     inches, or provided with fixed or movable louvres. The roof
     of every such skylight shall have at least twenty square
     feet of glazed surface. If the stairs and public halls are
     not provided at each story with windows opening directly to
     the outer air, the skylights shall be provided with ridge
     ventilators and also with fixed or movable louvres or
     movable sashes.

8.   A sash door shall be deemed the equivalent of a window for
     the purposes of this section if it contains the amount of
     glazed surface prescribed for such windows.

9.   In all old-law tenements the public halls and stairs shall
     be provided with such skylights, ventilators, windows in
     bulkheads or other means of lighting and ventilation as may
     be deemed practicable by the department.

10.  All skylights installed in old-law tenements after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, shall be provided
     with ridge ventilators having an opening of at least forty
     square inches and also with fixed or movable louvres or with
     movable sashes. They shall be of such size as may be
     determined to be practicable by the department, and the
     roofs of such skylights shall be glazed with plain glass
     equipped with suitable wire screen above and below.

11.  Whenever a public hall in any old-law tenement four stories
     or more in height is not light enough in the daytime to
     permit a person to read in every part thereof without the
     aid of artificial light, every door at the end of such hall
     or opening therefrom into a room shall have a wire glass
     panel or panels of an aggregate area of at least four square
     feet; or in lieu thereof such hall may be lighted by a
     window or windows opening upon a street or upon a lawful
     yard, court or shaft, with the plane of each such window at
     right angles to the length of the hall. In any such tenement
     any public hall or stair which is not provided with a window
     opening directly upon a street or yard and which is not
     sufficiently lighted in the opinion of the department shall
     be provided by the owner with artificial light, which shall
     be kept burning at all times.

12.  Any part of a public hall that is shut off from any other
     part of such hall by a door or doors shall be deemed a
     separate hall for the purposes of this section.


Sec. 218. Alterations.

1.   Any non-fireproof tenement erected after May fifteenth,
     nineteen hundred two, having apartments extending from
     street to yard and having one or more outer courts on a side
     lot line four feet or more in width or inner courts which
     alone or together with adjoining courts are eight feet or
     more in width and twelve feet six inches or more in depth,
     may be altered into apartments opening either on the street
     or the yard, provided all such altered apartments also have
     windows opening on such a court. All such altered apartments
     shall be provided with a second means of egress as required
     by section two hundred thirty-one. The entrance and stair
     halls of such tenement shall be fire-retarded.

2.   No room in the cellar or basement of any tenement shall be
     constructed or altered to be occupied for living purposes
     unless all of the conditions of section thirty-four and of
     subdivision eight of section twenty-six in regard to
     multiple dwellings erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twenty-nine, are complied with, except that the
     minimum depths of yards and courts prescribed for tenements
     in subdivision one of section two hundred twelve shall be
     substituted for the minimum depths referred to in section
     thirty-four.

3.   Any additional room or hall constructed or created in a
     tenement shall comply in all respects with the provisions of
     this article respecting rooms or halls in tenements erected
     after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twelve, except that
     in any tenement erected after April fourteenth, nineteen
     hundred three, such rooms or halls may be of the same height
     as the other rooms or halls on the same story.

4.   The number of apartments or suites of rooms on any story in
     any tenement erected after April twelfth, nineteen hundred
     one, may be altered so as to increase or decrease the number
     of living rooms provided such dwelling shall conform with
     the applicable provisions of sections two hundred thirty-
     five and two hundred thirty-six.

5.   If the number of apartments or suites of rooms in any old-
     law tenement is increased, the entrance hall and both sides
     of the walls of the stair halls adjoining the altered
     apartment shall be fire-retarded, the stairs shall extend to
     the roof and there shall be no inside stairs from the
     entrance story to a cellar, or to a basement or other story
     below the entrance story. However, such inside stair may be
     permitted provided such stair is constructed of
     incombustible material, has closed risers, is enclosed
     between the entrance story and the next lowest story with
     fireproof materials having a standard fire-resistive rating
     of at least three hours, and has fireproof doors and door
     assemblies at the top and bottom with the doors and door
     assemblies at the top and bottom with the doors self-
     closing. The soffit of any stair immediately above an inside
     cellar stair shall be fire-retarded and the jib partitions
     enclosing such cellar stair at the first story shall be of
     incombustible material or fire-retarded on both sides with
     materials having a standard fire-resistive rating of at
     least one hour.

6.   If any old-law tenement shall be so altered as to increase
     the number of rooms therein by one-third or more, or if such
     tenement is increased both in number of rooms and in height
     and after such alteration is more than four stories or parts
     of stories above the curb level, or if such tenement is over
     three stories in height and is combined with another old-law
     tenement and the combined area on any story exceeds three
     thousand square feet, the stair halls, entrance halls and
     other public halls of the whole dwelling shall be made to
     conform to the requirements of subdivision two of section
     two hundred thirty-three and sections two hundred thirty-
     four to two hundred thirty-eight inclusive, except that such
     combined tenements, if over three stories in height, shall
     have in the roof a fireproof bulkhead with a fireproof self-
     closing door.

7.   In lieu of fire retarding required under subdivision five,
     there may be installed in public halls an automatic dry pipe
     valve system or, where halls are heated, an automatic wet
     pipe system. Where a sprinkler system is installed it shall
     be equipped on each story with heads in such number and
     spaced to protect the complete area of the public halls and
     stairs and shall be constructed, located and arranged on
     every stair and entrance hall and in every closet opening
     therefrom in such a manner as the department may require.
     Such sprinkler system shall be maintained continuously in
     good repair and serviceable condition.


                             TITLE 2
                         FIRE PROTECTION

Sec. 230. Chimneys and fireplaces.

In every existing tenement which is not heated from a central
heating plant there shall be adequate flues or chimneys through
every floor with a fireplace or place for a stove properly
connected with one of such flues or chimneys for every apartment.


Sec. 231. Egress.

1.   Every non-fireproof tenement exceeding two stories in height
     and every fireproof tenement erected after May sixteenth,
     nineteen hundred thirteen, shall have at least two
     independent means of egress, which shall extend from the
     ground story to the roof, be located remote from each other
     and be separated from each other by walls.

2.   One of such means of egress shall be a flight of stairs
     constructed as provided in sections two hundred thirty-three
     to two hundred thirty-eight inclusive; but this sentence
     shall not be construed to require any alteration in the
     material or width of any stair or its treads and risers
     lawfully permitted on April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine.

3.   The other required means of egress shall be directly
     accessible at each story to each apartment without having to
     pass through the first means of egress. Such other means of
     egress shall be any one of the following, as the owner may
     elect:

     a.   A system of outside fire-escapes constructed as
          provided in section fifty-three.

     b.   An additional stair, either inside or outside,
          constructed and arranged as provided in sections two
          hundred thirty-three to two hundred thirty-eight
          inclusive.

     c.   A fire-tower or fire-stair constructed and arranged as
          provided in section two hundred thirty-nine.

     d.   Except as provided in subdivision nine of section fifty-
          three, any means of egress lawfully permitted on April
          eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, except wire,
          chain, cable, vertical ladder, or rope fire-escapes.


Sec. 232. Fire-escapes.

1.   All fire-escapes erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twenty-nine, shall be arranged and constructed in
     conformity with the provisions of section fifty-three.

2.   As specifically indicated in subdivision nine of section
     fifty-three, a wire, chain, cable, vertical ladder, or rope
     fire-escape is an unlawful means of egress from any
     apartment. Every such fire-escape shall be removed and
     replaced, if required as a means of egress, by a system of
     fire-escapes constructed and arranged as provided in section
     fifty-three.


Sec. 233. Bulkheads and scuttles.

1.   Every tenement, except as in this section otherwise
     provided, shall have in the roof a fireproof bulkhead with a
     fireproof door and after January first, nineteen hundred
     fifty-seven, the door shall be self-closing. Bulkheads
     existing on April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine,
     shall be lawful and may be replaced or repaired with
     material conforming to the material of which such bulkhead
     consisted on such date.

2.   A bulkhead in the roof of an old-law tenement which is more
     than a basement and four other stories in height or which is
     a basement and four other stories in height and occupied by
     three or more families on any story, may be of wood covered
     with metal on the outside and fire-retarded on the inside.
     Such a bulkhead shall be equipped with a fire-retarded door
     and assembly with the door self-closing.

3.   In any old-law tenement which is four stories or less in
     height or which is a basement and four other stories in
     height and occupied by not more than two families on any
     story, no bulkhead shall be required provided such tenement
     is equipped with a scuttle located in the ceiling of a
     public hall on the top story and with access thereto direct,
     uninterrupted and easily accessible to all tenants. All such
     scuttles shall be at least twenty-one inches in width and
     twenty-eight inches in length. They shall be constructed so
     as to be readily opened, covered on the outside with metal
     and provided with stairs or stationary iron ladders leading
     thereto.

4.   Every required stair in every tenement erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twelve, which is more than a
     basement and three other stories in height shall extend to
     and through a bulkhead in the roof. Such bulkhead shall have
     a fireproof door and assembly with the door self-closing and
     may be constructed of wood covered with metal on the outside
     and fire-retarded on the inside.

5.   Stairs leading to required bulkheads shall be fireproof and
     constructed as specified in sections two hundred thirty-four
     to two hundred thirty-eight inclusive, except that any such
     stairs existing on April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
     nine, shall be permitted without alteration, and that any
     such stairs constructed after such date in any old-law
     tenement may have such width and angle of ascent, and risers
     and treads of such dimensions, as approved by the
     department. All stairs to required bulkheads shall be
     provided with a guide or hand rail.

6.   Bulkhead doors and scuttles shall not be self-locking, and
     shall be fastened on the inside with movable bolts, hooks,
     or a lock which does not require a key to open it from the
     inside of the dwelling. All key locks are unlawful and where
     existing shall be removed.


Sec. 234. Stairs and public halls.

1.   In every tenement erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twelve, all stairs shall extend from the entrance
     story to the roof, except as otherwise provided in section
     two hundred thirty-three, and the stairs and public halls
     shall each be at least three feet in clear width. Every
     apartment in such a tenement shall be directly accessible at
     each story to such stairs and public halls, and every story
     of such apartment shall be so accessible to such a stair and
     public hall or to a tower fire-escape or stairway, as
     provided in this section and sections two hundred thirty-
     five to two hundred thirty-nine inclusive.

2.   In every tenement erected after April twelfth, nineteen
     hundred one, except as provided in paragraph b of
     subdivision two of section two hundred thirty-eight, all
     stairs and public halls shall be completely separated from
     all other stairs and from every elevator by brick walls or
     partitions of terra cotta blocks at least four inches thick,
     or hollow cement blocks at least four inches thick which
     have successfully withstood a three-hour standard fire test
     and been approved by the department and have fireproof doors
     and assemblies with the doors self-closing at all openings.
     From any portion of a public hall in such a tenement there
     may be a recess which shall not be deemed a public hall if
     the walls, floor and ceilings enclosing it are fire-retarded
     and such recess is at all times adequately lighted by
     electric lights of at least fifteen watts or equivalent
     illumination. Such a recess shall not be more than twenty
     feet long and shall not be used as a means of egress from
     more than three apartments.


Sec. 235. Stairs in non-fireproof tenements.

1.   Every non-fireproof tenement erected after May fifteenth,
     nineteen hundred two, containing more than twenty-six
     apartments or suites of rooms above the entrance story shall
     have an additional stair for every additional twenty-six
     apartments or suites or fraction thereof; except that if
     such tenement contains not more than thirty-six apartments
     above the entrance story, in lieu of an additional stair the
     stairs, stair halls and entrance halls throughout the entire
     tenement may each be at least one-half wider than is
     specified in sections two hundred thirty-four, two hundred
     thirty-seven and two hundred thirty-eight.

2.   The number of apartments on any story in any non-fireproof
     tenement may be altered, if the number of living rooms on
     such story is not increased by more than twenty per centum.
     If the number of living rooms on any story or section
     thereof above the entrance story exceeds twenty, there shall
     be an additional stair for each twenty rooms or fraction
     thereof on any such story or section thereof, except that if
     the number of living rooms on any such story or section does
     not exceed thirty, in lieu of an additional stair one stair
     and every public hall connected therewith may be at least
     one-half wider than is specified in sections two hundred
     thirty-four, two hundred thirty-seven and two hundred thirty-
     eight.

3.   Whenever the total number of rooms, exclusive of bathrooms,
     water-closet compartments, and cooking spaces not exceeding
     fifty-nine square feet in area, in any non-fireproof
     tenement or section thereof is decreased through the process
     of an alteration, the number of apartments may be altered
     and the provisions of this section which relate to
     additional stairs shall not be applicable.


Sec. 236. Stairs in fireproof tenements.

1.   Except as in this section otherwise provided, every
     fireproof tenement erected after May fifteenth, nineteen
     hundred two, containing more than thirty-six apartments or
     suites of rooms above the entrance story shall have an
     additional stair for every additional thirty-six apartments
     or suites or fraction thereof.

2.   If such a tenement contains not more than forty-eight
     apartments or suites above the entrance story, in lieu of an
     additional stair the stairs, stair halls and entrance halls
     throughout the entire tenement may each be at least one-half
     wider than is specified in sections two hundred thirty-four,
     two hundred thirty-seven and two hundred thirty-eight.

3.   If such a tenement contains more than seventy-two apartments
     or suites but not more than eighty-four above the entrance
     story, in lieu of three stairs there may be only two stairs,
     provided that one of such stairs and the stair and entrance
     halls connected therewith are at least one-half wider than
     is specified in sections two hundred thirty-four, two
     hundred thirty-seven and two hundred thirty-eight.

4.   For the purposes of this section a janitor's apartment in a
     penthouse shall not be construed as an additional apartment.

5.   The number of apartments on any story in any fireproof
     tenement may be altered, if the number of living rooms on
     such story is not increased by more than thirty per centum.
     If the number of living rooms on any story or section
     thereof above the entrance story exceeds thirty, there shall
     be an additional stair for each thirty rooms or fraction
     thereof on any such story or section thereof, except that if
     the number of living rooms on any such story or section does
     not exceed forty, in lieu of an additional stair one stair
     and every public hall connected therewith may be at least
     one-half wider than is specified in sections two hundred
     thirty-four, two hundred thirty-seven and two hundred thirty-
     eight; but in every such tenement erected before May
     sixteenth, nineteen hundred thirteen, and altered as herein
     permitted, the occupants of each additional apartment shall
     have access to at least two independent means of egress,
     which shall be made to conform to the requirements of
     section two hundred thirty-one for fireproof tenements
     erected after such date.

6.   Whenever the total number of rooms, exclusive of bathrooms,
     water-closet compartments, and cookings spaces not exceeding
     fifty-nine square feet in area, in any fireproof tenement or
     section thereof is decreased through the process of an
     alteration, the number of apartments may be altered and the
     provisions of this section which relate to additional stairs
     shall not be applicable.


Sec. 237. Stair construction.

1.   Every stair in a tenement erected after April twelfth,
     nineteen hundred one, shall be accessible on the entrance
     story from a street or street court, or from an inner court
     which connects directly with a street.

2.   All such stairs shall have risers of eight inches or less
     and treads at least ten inches in clear width and three feet
     in clear length.

3.   Winding stairs shall be unlawful except in a tenement
     provided with a passenger elevator. When winding stairs or
     radial steps are installed or used, the strings from which
     the risers radiate shall be curved on a circle of at least
     one foot diameter, the treads shall be at least four inches
     wide at the string, not including the nosing, and the angle
     formed by the face of each riser and the string shall not
     diverge more than forty degrees from a line normal to the
     string at the intersection of such riser. It shall be
     unlawful to construct new winding stairs.

4.   Stairs constructed after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, shall comply with the provisions of
     subdivisions two to six inclusive of section fifty-two.


Sec. 238. Stair and entrance halls.

All stair and entrance halls in tenements shall be constructed as
provided in this section.

1.   In tenements erected after April twelfth, nineteen hundred
     one:

     a.   On every story there shall be fireproof doors and
          assemblies with the doors self-closing separating every
          such stair and entrance hall from all non-fireproof
          parts of the tenement.

     b.   There shall be no transom, sash or similar opening of
          any kind from such stair and entrance halls to any
          other part of the tenement.

     c.   If such tenements are non-fireproof, and are occupied
          by three families or more on any story or are five
          stories or more in height, the stair and entrance halls
          shall be enclosed with brick walls, except as provided
          in paragraph a of subdivision three.

2.   In tenements erected after April fourteenth, nineteen
     hundred three:

     a.   Every entrance hall shall be at least three feet six
          inches in clear width from the entrance up to and
          including the stair enclosure, and beyond that at least
          three feet in clear width. If such entrance hall is the
          only entrance to two stairs or more, that portion of
          the hall between the entrance and the first stair,
          including the stair enclosure, shall be at least five
          feet three inches in clear width.

     b.   Such halls shall comply with the requirements of
          sections two hundred thirty-four to two hundred thirty-
          seven inclusive as to construction of stair and
          entrance halls, except that if such tenements are
          fireproof entrance hall enclosures need only withstand
          a fire test of two and one-half hours and angle iron
          construction may be substituted for brick walls.

     c.   In every such tenement access shall be provided from a
          street to the yard either in a direct line or through a
          court.

     d.   If such tenements are occupied by not more than two
          families on any story and are not more than four
          stories in height, the floors of the stair and entrance
          halls shall be fireproof or filled in between the floor
          beams with at least five inches of concrete deafening.
          The stairs shall be fireproof, or may be of wood
          provided the soffits of the stairs are fire-retarded,
          or covered with plaster board at least one-half inch
          thick, with all joints true and well pointed. The stair
          and entrance halls in such tenements shall be enclosed
          on all sides with brick walls or with partitions of
          angle iron and fireproof blocks four inches or more in
          thickness, except as provided in paragraph e.

     e.   If such tenements are occupied by not more than two
          families on any story and are not more than three
          stories in height, the stair and entrance halls may be
          enclosed in wood stud partitions, fire-retarded on both
          sides, or covered with plaster board at least one-half
          inch thick, with all joints true and well pointed and
          with the spaces between the studs filled in with brick
          to the height of the floor beams.

3.   In tenements erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twelve:

     a.   If such tenements are occupied by three or more
          families on any story, or are five stories or more in
          height, the stairs and entrance halls shall be
          fireproof throughout and all stairs provided with
          handrails, except that stair treads two inches or more
          in thickness and handrails may be of hard wood. All
          windows in such halls shall be fireproof and, except
          for windows opening on a street in a tenement six
          stories or less in height, shall be glazed with wire
          glass. Such halls shall be enclosed with brick walls,
          except that one or more sides may be left open to a
          street, yard or court.

     b.   Public halls which are more than forty feet in length
          and are used as a means of egress from four or more
          apartments shall be fireproof throughout and doors
          opening therefrom and their assemblies shall be
          fireproof with the doors self-closing.

4.   In old-law tenements four stories or more in height:

     a.   Whenever the entrance halls of any such tenements
          adjoin they shall be separated by a fire-retarded wall.

     b.   The walls and ceilings of every entrance hall and stair
          hall, and every public hall connected therewith, and
          the soffit of every stair shall be fire-retarded. In
          all such halls all wood wainscoting except a flat base
          and stair stringers ten inches or less in height, and
          all wood railings, balustrades and newel posts shall be
          removed completely and replaced with metal or other
          hard incombustible materials of such size and secured
          in such manner as may be approved by the department,
          except that handrails may be of hard wood.

     c.   Every door opening into any entrance hall or stair, or
          into any public hall connected therewith, shall be self-
          closing; every glazed opening or glazed panel in such a
          door shall be glazed with wire glass, and every transom
          opening into any public hall shall be glazed with wire
          glass and permanently secured in a closed position.

     d.   Every interior sash, or opening other than a door, in
          the walls or partitions of such halls, and every window
          therein not opening to the outer air, shall be removed
          and the openings closed up and fire-retarded.


Sec. 239. Tower fire-escapes and supplemental stairs.

In fireproof tenements tower fire-escapes or stairs which are
supplemental to the stairs required by law may be installed
providing such tower fire-escapes or stairs shall be shut off
from all other parts of the dwelling by brick walls or partitions
of terra cotta blocks at least four inches thick, or hollow
cement blocks at least four inches thick which have successfully
withstood a three-hour standard fire test and been approved by
the department, and have fireproof doors and assemblies with the
doors self-closing at all openings. Whenever such supplementary
stairs are provided they shall be constructed in accordance with
such supplementary regulations as may be adopted by the
department. Such tower fire-escapes or stairs shall not be used
as service stairs and shall be kept adequately lighted at all
times and free from encumbrance.


Sec. 240. First tier of beams.

1.   In all tenements erected after April twelfth, nineteen
     hundred one, which are five stories or more in height, the
     first floor above the lowest cellar, or, if there be no
     cellar, above the basement or other lowest story, shall be
     fireproof; and all exposed portions of any iron or steel
     beams below the floor arches shall be fire-retarded.

2.   In all non-fireproof tenements erected after such date which
     are four stories or less in height, the ceiling of the
     lowest cellar, or, if there be no cellar, of the basement or
     other lowest story, shall be fire-retarded or covered with
     plaster boards at least one-half inch in thickness, with all
     joints made true and well pointed.

3.   In all old-law tenements which are four stories or more in
     height the ceiling of the cellar, or, if there be no cellar,
     of the basement or other lowest story, shall be fire-
     retarded.


Sec. 241. Partitions; fire-stopping.

1.   In tenements erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twelve, wood stud apartment partitions which are
     directly over each other shall run through the wood floor
     beams and rest upon the plate of the partition below. In
     fireproof tenements erected after such date all partitions
     shall rest directly upon the fireproof floor construction
     and extend to the fireproof beam filling above. Apartment
     partitions within the meaning of this section are partitions
     crossing the floor beams at any angle and separating one
     apartment from another or any part of an apartment from any
     public part of the dwelling.

2.   In tenements erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twelve, apartment studding shall be filled in
     solidly between the uprights to the depth of the floor beams
     with incombustible materials.

3.   In non-fireproof tenements erected after April twelfth,
     nineteen hundred one, in every wall where wood furring is
     used, every course of masonry from the under side to the top
     of any floor beams shall project a distance of two inches or
     more beyond each face of the wall that is not on the outside
     of the dwelling, so as to provide an effective fire stop;
     and whenever floor beams run parallel to a wall and wood
     furring is used, every such beam shall always be kept two
     inches away from the wall, and the space between the beams
     and the wall shall be built up solidly with brickwork from
     the underside to the top of the floor beams so as to form an
     effective fire stop.


Sec. 242. Cellar and basement stairs in non-fireproof tenements.

1.   Cellar stairs in non-fireproof tenements erected after April
     twelfth, nineteen hundred one, which are occupied by three
     families or more on any story or which are five stories or
     more in height, shall be governed by the provisions of
     section one hundred fifty for non-fireproof multiple
     dwellings erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine. In all other non-fireproof tenements erected
     after April twelfth, nineteen hundred one, any stair leading
     to a cellar may be located inside the building, provided it
     is enclosed with fireproof walls and is provided with
     fireproof doors and assemblies at both the top and bottom,
     with the doors self-closing.

2.   In old-law tenements exceeding a basement and three other
     stories in height and provided with an inside cellar stair
     communicating between the entrance story and a cellar or
     lower story, the opening to such stair if located underneath
     the main stair leading to the upper stories shall be
     enclosed from the level of the entrance story up to the
     underside of the first flight of such main stairs. The
     soffit of such first flight of main stairs and the
     partitions forming such enclosure shall be fire-retarded or
     covered with twenty-six gauge metal. The opening to such
     enclosure shall be provided with a fireproof door and
     assembly with the door self-closing.


Sec. 243. Cellar and basement stairs in fireproof tenements.

In fireproof tenements erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
hundred twelve, the cellar and basement stairs shall be located,
arranged and constructed as provided in section one hundred six
for fireproof dwellings erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
hundred twenty-nine.


Sec. 244. Spaces under stairs.

In non-fireproof tenements erected after April twelfth, nineteen
hundred one, no closet of any kind shall be constructed or
maintained under any stair leading from the entrance story to the
upper stories, and such space shall be kept entirely open and
clear of any encumbrance.


Sec. 245. Cellar entrance.

In tenements erected after April twelfth, nineteen hundred one,
there shall be an entrance to the cellar, or to the basement or
other lowest story if there be no cellar, from the outside of the
tenement.


                            TITLE 2-A
                      SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY

Sec. 248. Single room occupancy.

1.   It shall be unlawful to occupy any frame multiple dwelling
     for single room occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy
     any other existing class A dwelling or part thereof as a
     rooming house or furnished room house or for single room
     occupancy unless such dwelling or part shall conform to the
     provisions of this section and to such other provisions of
     this chapter as were applicable to such dwelling before such
     conversion. This section shall not be construed to prohibit
     the letting by a family of one or more rooms within their
     apartment to not more than a total of four boarders, roomers
     or lodgers provided, however, that every room in such
     apartment shall have free and unobstructed access to each
     required exit from such apartment as required by the
     provisions of paragraphs a, b and c of subdivision four of
     this section. A dwelling occupied pursuant to this section
     shall be deemed a class A dwelling.

2.   Any such dwelling may be so occupied without increasing the
     number of stairs.

3.   The number of rooms shall not be increased nor shall the
     light or ventilation of any room be impaired.

4.   a.   No room in any apartment shall be so occupied
          unless each room therein shall have free and
          unobstructed access to each required means of egress
          from the dwelling without passing through any sleeping
          room, bathroom or water-closet compartment.

     b.   There shall be access to a second means of egress
          within the apartment without passing through any public
          stair or public hall. On and after July first, nineteen
          hundred fifty-seven every tenement used or occupied for
          single room occupancy in whole or in part under the
          provisions of this section and which does not have at
          least two means of egress accessible to each apartment
          and extending from the ground story to the roof, shall
          be provided with at least two means of egress, or, in
          lieu of such egress, every stair hall or public hall,
          and every hall or passage within an apartment, shall be
          equipped on each story with one or more automatic
          sprinkler heads approved by the department. Elevator
          shafts in such tenements shall be completely enclosed
          with fireproof or other incombustible material and the
          doors to such shafts shall be fireproof or shall be
          covered on all sides with incombustible material.

     c.   Where access to a required means of egress is provided
          through a room, such access to such room shall be
          through a clear opening at least thirty inches wide
          extending from floor to ceiling and such opening shall
          not be equipped with any door or door frame, or with
          any device by means of which the opening may be closed,
          concealed or obstructed.

     d.   All doors which open to any public hall or required
          stair hall and the door assemblies shall be fireproof
          with the doors self-closing.

     e.   All doors opening from any room to any hall or passage
          within an apartment shall be self-closing and all
          transoms within an apartment shall be permanently
          closed. All plain glass shall be removed from such
          doors and transoms and replaced with wire glass, wood
          or other non-shatterable material satisfactory to the
          department.

     f.   Directly over the opening to every required means of
          egress within an apartment, there shall be a sign of a
          type approved by the department marked "Fire Exit" and
          lighted in red at all times to indicate clearly the
          location of the means of egress, and on the walls of
          any hall or passage within the apartment leading to
          such means of egress there shall be maintained at all
          times arrows to indicate clearly the direction and
          location of the fire exit.

     g.   Every hall or passage within an apartment shall be
          unobstructed and well lighted at all times with a
          minimum of one foot-candle of light.

     h.   All wood wainscoting except a flat base not exceeding
          ten inches in height shall be removed from every hall
          or passage within an apartment.

5.   In every such dwelling which is not fireproof every hall or
     passage within an apartment shall be equipped with a
     sprinkler system, which shall be extended so as to have at
     least one sprinkler head in every room. The construction and
     arrangement of such sprinkler system shall comply with the
     requirements of the department.

6.   There shall be provided in each such dwelling an adequate
     and reliable fire alarm system, approved by the fire
     commissioner by means of which alarms of fire or other
     danger may be instantly communicated to every portion of the
     dwelling. Where, throughout the dwelling, a closed-circuit,
     automatic thermostatic fire-detecting system is installed
     which actuates an interior fire alarm system, or where,
     throughout the dwelling, an approved-type automatic
     sprinkler system is installed which actuates an interior
     fire alarm system by the flow of water through such
     sprinkler system, a watchman need not be provided as
     required in subdivision fifteen of this section.

7.   There shall be a fire-retarded bulkhead in the roof
     connecting directly with the highest portion of any stairway
     to the roof, which bulkhead shall contain a fireproof door
     and assembly with the door self-closing. The stairs leading
     to such bulkhead shall be fireproof or fire-retarded as
     required for public stairways in the other parts of such
     dwelling.

8.   a.   Every wash basin, bath, shower, sink and laundry
          tub shall be provided with an adequate supply of hot
          and cold water.

     b.   When the number of occupants of such a dwelling is
          eleven or more, there shall be provided for them in
          such dwelling at least one laundry tub and facilities
          for drying clothes.

9.   Cooking shall be permitted only in kitchens and cooking
     spaces complying with the provisions of section thirty-
     three. Any gas fixture in such spaces shall be connected
     with permanent, rigid piping. The use of any movable cooking
     apparatus in any sleeping room is unlawful.

10.  a.   There shall be a central heating system adequate
          to heat every sleeping room in a dwelling to the
          temperature requirements prescribed by subdivision one
          of section seventy-nine of this chapter.

     b.   The use of any movable heating apparatus in any
          sleeping room is unlawful.

     c.   Every boiler room shall be constructed in accordance
          with the provisions of section sixty-five and shall be
          adequately ventilated.

11.  a.   No room may be occupied for sleeping purposes
          unless it has a window or windows with an aggregate
          glazed area of at least ten per centum of the total
          floor area of such room. Each such window shall be at
          least twelve feet in area and so constructed that at
          least half of its area may be opened.

     b.   Any room on a top story may be lighted and ventilated
          by a skylight of the same area as required for windows
          and arranged to provide an opening of at least six
          square feet for ventilation.

     c.   In every sleeping room, except a room on the top story
          so lighted and ventilated, there shall be at least one
          window meeting the requirements of section two hundred
          thirteen, except as otherwise specified in this
          subdivision, opening upon a street or upon a yard,
          court or shaft meeting the requirements of section two
          hundred twelve, but in no case shall such a court or
          shaft be less than twenty-eight inches in width.

     d.   Every room shall be adequately lighted by electricity.
          The use of gas or any other type of open flame lighting
          is unlawful.

12.  No room may be occupied for sleeping purposes by more than
     two adults considering children of twelve years or more as
     adults and two children between the ages of two and eleven
     years inclusive as the equivalent of one adult. Children
     under two years of age need not be considered as occupants.

13.  Every room rented for single room occupancy and all
     furniture and bedding therein shall be thoroughly cleansed
     before occupancy and every sleeping room at least once a
     week thereafter. When bed linens are provided they shall be
     changed at least once every week. When the rent includes the
     use of towels, at least one bath towel and two hand towels
     shall be provided every week for each occupant. Such
     cleansing and service shall be the exclusive obligation of
     the person from whom the occupant rents such room.

14.  Except as provided in subdivision thirteen, the owner shall
     maintain the dwelling in conformity with section eighty
     relating to cleanliness.

15.  There shall be a competent manager living on the premises,
     who shall be responsible for the conduct, operation and
     maintenance of the dwelling, and, except as provided in
     subdivision six of this section, there shall also be on the
     premises at all times a competent watchman in charge of the
     dwelling.

16.  It shall be unlawful to rent any room in any such dwelling
     for a period of less than a week.

17.  In each such dwelling a register shall be kept, which shall
     show the name, signature, residence, date of arrival and
     date of departure of each occupant and the room occupied by
     him.


                             TITLE 3
                           SANITATION

Sec. 250. Water-closets.

Water-closet compartments in tenements shall comply with the
applicable provisions of section seventy-six.


Sec. 251. Vent flues.

Supplementary water-closet compartments and bathrooms in
fireproof tenements shall be ventilated and lighted in accordance
with the applicable provisions of section seventy-six.


Sec. 252. Privacy.

In every apartment of three or more rooms in any tenement erected
after April twelfth, nineteen hundred one, there shall be access
to every living room and bedroom and to at least one compartment
or bathroom containing a water-closet without passing through any
bedroom.

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