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NEW YORK STATE
MULTIPLE DWELLING LAW

Chapter 713 of the Laws of 1929, as amended


                            ARTICLE 3
             MULTIPLE DWELLINGS--GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section             25.  Application of article three.

                             TITLE 1
                          LIGHT AND AIR

Section             26.  Height, bulk, open spaces.
                    28.  Two or more buildings on same
                         lot.
                    29.  Painting of courts and shafts.
                    30.  Lighting and ventilation of
                         rooms.
                    31.  Size of rooms.
                    32.  Alcoves.
                    33.  Cooking spaces.
                    34.  Rooms in basements and
                         cellars.
                    35.  Entrance doors and lights.
                    36.  Windows and skylights for
                         public halls and stairs.
                    37.  Artificial hall lighting.

                             TITLE 2
                   FIRE PROTECTION AND SAFETY

Section             50.  Entrance halls.
                    50a  Entrances: doors, locks
                         and intercommunication systems.
                    50c  Rights of tenants to
                         operate and maintain a lobby
                         attendant service.
                    51.  Shafts, elevators and
                         dumbwaiters.
                    51a  Peepholes.
                    51b  Mirrors in connection
                         with self-service elevators.
                    51c  Rights of tenants to
                         install and maintain locks in
                         certain entrance doors.
                    52.  Stairs.
                    53.  Fire-escapes.
                    54.  Cellar entrance.
                    55.  Wainscoting.
                    56.  Frame buildings and
                         extensions.
                    57.  Bells; mail receptacles.
                    58.  Incombustible materials.
                    59.  Bakeries and fat boiling.
                    60.  Motor vehicle storage.
                    61.  Business uses.
                    62.  Parapets, guard railings and
                         wires.
                    63.  Sub-curb uses.
                    64.  Lighting; gas meters; gas and
                         oil appliances.
                    65.  Boiler rooms.
                    66.  Lodging houses.
                    67.  Hotels and certain other class
                         A and class B dwellings.
                    68.  Smoke detecting devices.

                             TITLE 3
                      SANITATION AND HEALTH

Section             75.  Water supply.
                    76.  Water-closet and bath
                         accommodations.
                    77.  Plumbing and drainage.
                    78.  Repairs.
                    79.  Heating.
                    80.  Cleanliness.
                    81.  Receptacles for waste matter.
                    82.  Privacy.
                    83.  Janitor or housekeeper.
                    84.  Construction standards for the
                         control of noise.

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Sec. 25.  Application of article three.

Except as otherwise expressly provided, all the provisions of
this article shall apply to every multiple dwelling erected after
April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine. Except as
otherwise expressly provided, only the following enumerated
sections of this article, and then only to the extent required
therein, shall apply to multiple dwellings, whether class A or
class B, erected before such date:

Sec. 28        Two or more buildings on same lot
Sec. 29        Painting of courts and shafts
Sec. 31        Size of rooms--subdivision six
Sec. 33        Cooking spaces
Sec. 35        Entrance doors and lights
Sec. 37        Artificial hall lighting
Sec. 50-a      Entrances: doors, locks and intercommunication
               systems
Sec. 52        Stairs
Sec. 55        Wainscoting
Sec. 56        Frame buildings and extensions
Sec. 57        Bells; mail receptacles
Sec. 58        Incombustible materials
Sec. 59        Bakeries and fat boiling
Sec. 60        Motor vehicle storage
Sec. 61        Business uses
Sec. 62        Parapets, guard railings and wires--subdivision two
Sec. 66        Lodging houses
Sec. 67        Hotels and certain other class A and B dwellings
Sec. 75        Water supply
Sec. 76        Water-closet and bath accommodations
Sec. 77        Plumbing and drainage
Sec. 78        Repairs
Sec. 79        Heating
Sec. 80        Cleanliness
Sec. 81        Receptacles for waste matter
Sec. 83        Janitor or housekeeper


                             TITLE 1
                          LIGHT AND AIR

Sec. 26.  Height, bulk, open spaces.

1.   Dwellings affected.

     a.   This section, except as may specifically be provided
          otherwise in articles six and seven, shall apply to all
          dwellings erected, enlarged, converted or altered
          pursuant to plans filed on or after December fifteenth,
          nineteen hundred sixty-one for the purpose of
          regulating their height and bulk and regulating and
          determining the area of yards, courts and other open
          spaces of such dwellings.

     b.   The construction, enlargement, conversion or alteration
          of any dwelling undertaken pursuant to plans filed
          prior to December fifteenth, nineteen hundred sixty-one
          in compliance with the provisions of sections twenty-
          six, twenty-seven and twenty-eight of this chapter, as
          they existed prior to the enactment of chapter ten
          hundred seventy-two of the laws of nineteen hundred
          sixty, effective July first, nineteen hundred sixty-one
          may be commenced, continued or completed as if such
          sections remained in full force and effect.
          Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision four of
          section three hundred, the department shall not require
          any change or modification in the height or bulk or in
          the area of yards, courts and other open spaces of
          dwellings to be erected or enlarged pursuant to plans
          filed prior to December fifteenth, nineteen hundred
          sixty-one as a condition for the reissuance of a
          building permit or the renewal of an approval, except
          as may otherwise be provided by local law, ordinance or
          zoning ordinance.

     c.   Nothing in this section shall be construed to require
          any change in the height, bulk, or open space of any
          dwelling erected, enlarged, converted or altered
          pursuant to plans filed before December fifteenth,
          nineteen hundred sixty-one.

     d.   Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs a, b or c,
          the provisions of this section shall apply to buildings
          erected, enlarged, converted or altered pursuant to
          plans filed prior to December fifteenth, nineteen
          hundred sixty-one, where such compliance may be
          required by local law, ordinance or zoning ordinance.

2.   Definitions.

For the purpose of this section certain words are defined herein
but such definitions shall not be held to modify or affect legal
interpretations of such terms or words as used in any local law,
ordinance, rule or regulation and shall apply in addition to and
not in substitution for the provisions of section four of this
chapter.

a.   "Accessory use or accessory structure": a use or structure
     customarily incident to the principal use or building:

b.   "Floor area": the sum of the gross horizontal areas of all
     of the several floors of a dwelling or dwellings and
     accessory structures on a lot measured from the exterior
     faces of exterior walls or from the center line of party
     walls, except:

     (1)  cellar space;

     (2)  attic space providing head room of less than eight
          feet;

     (3)  space for mechanical equipment;

     (4)  elevator and stair bulkheads, tanks and cooling towers;

     (5)  open or roofed terraces, exterior balconies or porches,
          uncovered steps and open porte-cocheres or breezeways
          abutting or adjoining grade entrances;

     (6)  accessory space used for off-street motor vehicle
          parking or storage.

c.   "Floor area ratio (FAR)": A figure determined by dividing
     the floor area of the several floors of all buildings on a
     lot by the area of such lot.

d.   "Corner lot": A lot bounded entirely by streets or a lot
     which adjoins the point of intersections of two of more
     streets and in which the interior angle formed by the
     extensions of the street lines in the directions which they
     take at their intersections with lot lines other than street
     lines, forms an angle of one hundred thirty-five degrees or
     less. In the event that any street line is a curve at its
     point of intersection with a lot line other than a street
     line, the tangent to the curve at that point shall be
     considered the direction of the street line. The portion of
     such lot subject to the regulations for corner lots is that
     portion bounded by the intersecting street line and lines
     parallel to and one hundred feet from each intersecting
     street line. Any remaining portion of a corner lot shall be
     subject to the regulations for a through lot or for an
     interior lot, whichever is applicable.

e.   "Tower": A dwelling or dwellings or portion thereof which
     has an aggregate horizontal area of not more than forty per
     centum of the area of a lot, or, for lots of less than
     twenty thousand square feet, the per centum set forth in the
     following table:

     Area of lot                     Maximum percent
     (in square feet)                of lot coverage

     10,500 or less ............................. 50%
     10,501 to 11,500 ........................... 49
     11,501 to 12,500 ........................... 48
     12,501 to 13,500 ........................... 47
     13,501 to 14,500 ........................... 46
     14,501 to 15,500 ........................... 45
     15,501 to 16,500 ........................... 44
     16,501 to 17,500 ........................... 43
     17,501 to 18,500 ........................... 42
     18,501 to 19,999 ........................... 41


3.   Floor area ratio (FAR). The floor area ratio (FAR) of any
     dwelling or dwellings on a lot shall not exceed 12.0, except
     that a fireproof class B dwelling in which six or more
     passenger elevators are maintained and operated in any city
     having a local zoning law, ordinance or resolution
     restricting districts in such city to residential use, may
     be erected in accordance with the provisions of such zoning
     law, ordinance or resolution, if such class B dwelling is
     erected in a district no part of which is restricted by such
     zoning law, ordinance or resolution to residential uses.

4.   Height. A dwelling may be erected to any height and any
     number of stories so long as it does not exceed the bulk
     limitations hereinafter prescribed.

5.   Rear yard.

     a.   Except as otherwise provided in the zoning resolution
          of the city of New York and except as hereinafter
          provided for a corner lot, an interior lot within one
          hundred feet of the point of intersection of the two
          street lines intersecting at an angle of one hundred
          thirty-five degrees or less, an interior lot fronting
          on a block measuring less than two hundred thirty feet
          in length between two intersecting streets or a through
          lot, a rear yard shall be required for each dwelling
          and shall extend the entire width of the lot at every
          point. For dwellings occupying an entire block or a
          through lot, no rear yard shall be required. When
          dwellings do not exceed in area thirty-five per centum
          of the plot, the department shall permit such location
          of yards and courts as will promote the best possible
          plot ventilation. For purposes of this paragraph a, a
          block shall not be deemed less than an entire block
          because a portion thereof is conveyed after
          construction of such multiple dwelling or dwellings to
          a city for public park purposes.

     b.   Except as otherwise provided in the zoning resolution
          of the city of New York, the minimum depth of a
          required rear yard shall be thirty feet for the first
          one hundred twenty-five feet above curb level, and
          fifty feet above that point. The depth of a rear yard
          shall be measured at right angles from the rear lot
          line to the extreme exterior rear wall of the dwelling.
          The provisions of this paragraph requiring a rear yard
          fifty feet in depth for portions of a building in
          excess of one hundred twenty-five feet above the curb
          level shall not be applied to a tower.

     c.   Except as otherwise provided in the zoning resolution
          of the city of New York, on a corner lot no rear yard
          shall be required, provided, however, every required
          window shall open into either:

          (1)  a lawful inner or outer court; or

          (2)  a side or rear yard with a minimum width or depth
               of thirty feet in one direction; or

          (3)  if such lot is less than ten thousand square feet
               in area, a side yard with a minimum width of
               twenty feet, or an inner space equivalent to the
               area of a lawful inner court.

     d.   Except as otherwise provided in the zoning resolution
          of the city of New York, on any through lot one hundred
          ten feet or more in maximum depth from street to
          street, one of the following rear yard equivalents
          shall be provided:

          (1)  An open area with a minimum depth of sixty feet,
               extending across the entire lot and linking
               abutting rear yards, or if no such rear yards
               exist, then an open area, with a minimum depth of
               sixty feet, midway (or within five feet thereof)
               between the two street lines upon which such
               through lot fronts and provided further that the
               provisions of paragraph b of this subdivision
               shall apply above a height of one hundred and
               twenty-five feet above the curb level as if such
               rear yard equivalent were two adjoining rear
               yards; or

          (2)  Two open areas, each abutting and extending along
               the full length of a street line, and each with a
               minimum depth of thirty feet measured from such
               street line; or

          (3)  An open area adjoining and extending along the
               full length of each side lot line, with a minimum
               width of thirty feet measured from each side lot
               line.

     e.   When the maximum depth of any interior lot owned
          separately and individually from all other adjoining
          tracts of land on December fifteenth, nineteen hundred
          sixty-one is less than seventy feet, the required depth
          of the rear yard of a dwelling on such lot for the
          first one hundred twenty-five feet above curb level may
          be decreased one foot for each foot by which the
          maximum depth is less than seventy feet. However, any
          such yard shall never be less than ten feet in depth at
          any point above its lowest level.

     f.   Except for fireproof buildings and except as otherwise
          provided in this paragraph there shall be access from a
          street to the yard through a fireproof passage either
          in a direct line or through a court. Such passage shall
          be not less than three feet in clear width and seven
          feet in height. Such passage shall not be required for
          a multiple dwelling which does not exceed three stories
          in height and is not occupied by more than one family
          on any story or three families in all or for a dwelling
          which does not exceed two stories in height and is not
          occupied by more than two families on any story or four
          families in all provided every required means of egress
          from such dwelling leads directly to a street or to an
          outer court opening upon a street. When a dwelling does
          not exceed three stories in height and is not occupied
          by more than two families on any story, such passage
          may be of fire-retarded construction.

6.   Side yard. Except as otherwise provided in the zoning
     resolution of the city of New York, no side yard shall be
     required. If a side yard is provided it shall in no event be
     less than eight feet in width at any point. Such side yard
     need not exceed thirty feet in width.

7.   Courts. Except as otherwise provided in the zoning
     resolution of the city of New York:

     a.   An inner court shall have minimum width of four inches
          per foot for each one foot of height of such court, but
          in no event less than fifteen feet in width at any
          point. The area of such inner court shall be twice the
          square of the width of the court dimension based on the
          height of such court, but in no event less than three
          hundred fifty square feet in area. The area of such
          court need not exceed one thousand two hundred square
          feet provided that the minimum horizontal distance
          between any required window of a living room opening on
          an inner court shall not be less than thirty feet from
          any wall opposite such window. For a dwelling three
          stories or less in height, an inner court may have a
          minimum width of three inches for each one foot of
          height of such court, but in no event less than ten
          feet in width at any point. The area of such court
          shall be twice the square of the required width of
          court dimension based on the height of such court but
          in no event less than two hundred fifty square feet in
          area. An air in-take of fireproof construction shall be
          provided at or near the lowest level of every inner
          court of dwellings exceeding two stories in height, and
          shall communicate directly with a street or yard. Such
          intake shall have a vertical cross-sectional area of
          not less than twenty-one square feet and a minimum
          width of not less than three feet in its least
          dimension, and shall be open and unobstructed
          throughout, except that where the in-take is not used
          as a passage or exit, gates or grilles which do not
          interfere with ventilation may be installed.

     b.   An outer court at any given height shall have a minimum
          width at least equal to twice the depth of such outer
          court if such outer court is less than thirty feet
          wide. Such outer court shall have a width at least
          equal to its depth if such court is thirty feet or more
          in width. An outer court need not exceed sixty feet in
          width. Except as provided in section sixty, an outer
          court on a side lot line may begin at the level of the
          floor of the lowest story in which there is a living
          room opening therefrom. Any outer court not on a side
          lot line may begin at any level, the height of such
          court to be measured from the level at which such court
          begins.

7-a  Lights in rear yards, side yards, front yards and courts.
     The owner of every dwelling shall install and maintain in
     every rear yard, side yard, front yard and court a light or
     lights of at least forty watts of incandescent illumination
     or equivalent illumination, in such locations as the
     department may prescribe, which shall be kept burning from
     sunset on each day to sunrise on the day following.

8.   Level of areas adjoining living rooms. The bottom of any
     yard, rear yard equivalent, court or other open area which
     abuts or adjoins and gives light or ventilation to a living
     room shall be at the floor level or lower of such living
     room, except that:

     a.   If the depth of a yard exceeds the minimum required
          depth by as much as one-half, the bottom of such yard
          may be at any level not higher than six inches below
          the window sills of any such adjoining living room and
          not more than three feet above the floor of such room.

     b.   If the width of an outer court exceeds the minimum
          required by as much as forty per centum, the bottom of
          such court may be at any level permitted by paragraph a
          for a yard or rear yard equivalent.

9.   Permitted obstructions.

Every yard and court shall comply with all the requirements of
this section and be open and unobstructed at every point from the
lowest level to the sky except that the following shall not be
deemed to obstruct or reduce the area of otherwise lawful yards,
rear yard equivalents or courts, provided that required light and
ventilation for living rooms and required egress from the
dwelling are maintained to the satisfaction of the department:

     a.   Accessory off-street parking spaces, open or enclosed,
          conforming to the applicable provisions of section
          sixty.

     b.   Fire escapes erected as provided in paragraph b of
          subdivision two of section fifty-three.

     c.   In a yard or rear yard equivalent, boiler flues or
          chimneys projecting not more than three feet into such
          yard and provided every such flue or chimney does not
          exceed two per cent of the required area of the yard.

     d.   Outside stairways, fire towers, platforms or balconies
          or other similar projections which extend beyond the
          wall of the dwelling.

     e.   Enclosures of balconies or spaces erected as provided
          in subdivision four of section thirty.

     f.   Arbors, trellises, awnings or canopies, fences, flag
          poles, open steps, or breezeways.

     g.   Recreational or drying yard equipment except as
          otherwise provided in section fifty-six.

     h.   Walls not exceeding eight feet in height and not roofed
          or part of a structure.

     i.   Retaining walls to protect adjoining premises provided
          such walls are not more than fifteen feet in height
          measured from the curb level of the lot on which such
          walls are erected, do not extend above the sill of any
          required living room window on the first story facing
          such a wall and do not extend more than thirty-six
          inches into the required area of a yard, rear yard
          equivalent or court.

     j.   A party wall not more than twelve inches into the
          required area of a yard, or rear yard equivalent or
          court.

     k.   Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent
          cutting off the corners of any yard, rear yard
          equivalent or court, provided the running length of the
          wall at the angle of such yard or court does not exceed
          seven feet.

     l.   In a rear yard equivalent, an enclosed passageway
          connecting portions of separate buildings where such
          passageway does not exceed fourteen feet in height and
          fifteen feet in width measured between the outer faces
          of the walls thereof.

10.  Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to prevent
     the turfing over of any yard or court space or the planting
     of shrubs or trees therein when approved by the department.

11.  Pending actions or proceedings. Nothing contained in this
     section shall affect or impair any act done, offense
     committed or right accruing or accrued or acquired, or
     liability, penalty, forfeiture or punishment incurred prior
     to December fifteenth, nineteen hundred sixty-one, but the
     same way may be enjoyed, asserted, enforced, prosecuted or
     inflicted as fully and to the same extend as if this section
     had not been enacted.


Sec. 28.  Two or more buildings on same lot.

1.   If any separate multiple dwelling is erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, upon the rear of a
     lot which has another multiple dwelling on the front or upon
     the front of a lot which has another multiple dwelling on
     the rear, access shall be provided to the rear dwelling from
     a street by means of an unobstructed court at least twenty
     feet in width.

2.   Except as otherwise provided for motor vehicle storage space
     in section sixty and for dwellings erected, enlarged,
     converted or altered pursuant to plans filed prior to
     December fifteenth, nineteen hundred sixty-one in accordance
     with the provisions of subdivision one of section twenty-
     six, if any building or dwelling is placed on the rear of
     the same lot with a multiple dwelling or a multiple dwelling
     is placed anywhere on the same lot with another building,
     there shall be left between the two buildings an open space
     unoccupied from the ground up and at least forty feet in
     depth, measured in the direction from one building to the
     other for the first one hundred twenty-five feet above the
     curb level, and eighty feet above that point. The provisions
     of this subdivision requiring an open space eighty feet in
     depth between portions of buildings in excess of one hundred
     twenty-five feet above the curb level shall not be applied
     when both such portions are towers.

3.   If on the rear of a lot any such building or any portion
     thereof is used for business purposes, a separate passageway
     at least three feet six inches wide and seven feet high
     shall be provided leading from every such open space
     adjacent to such building to a street. No such passageway
     shall connect with, go through or form a part of any
     entrance hall or other public hall of a multiple dwelling
     upon the front of the lot.


Sec. 29.  Painting of courts and shafts.

The exterior surface of all walls of all courts and shafts of
multiple dwellings, except of outer courts opening on a street,
and courts having dimensions of at least fifty percent in excess
of the minimum set forth in section twenty-six, shall be of a
light-colored brick or stone, or be thoroughly whitewashed or
painted a light color by the owner and be so maintained. Such
whitewash or paint shall be renewed whenever necessary, as may be
determined and required by the department.


Sec. 30.  Lighting and ventilation of rooms.

1.   The provisions of this section shall apply only to multiple
     dwellings erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, and shall apply to all such dwellings unless
     otherwise expressly limited.

2.   Except as in this section and in sections thirty-three,
     seventy-six, one hundred fifteen, one hundred sixty, one
     hundred seventy-six, two hundred, two hundred thirteen, two
     hundred fifty and two hundred fifty-one otherwise expressly
     provided, every room, including kitchens, water-closet
     compartments and bathrooms, shall have at least one window
     opening directly upon a street or upon a lawful yard, court
     or space above a setback upon the same lot as that occupied
     by the multiple dwelling in which such room is situated.
     Every such window shall be so located as to light properly
     all portions of the room.

3.   No room in any apartment of three rooms or less, and no room
     in any non-fireproof apartment, shall extend in depth, from
     a street or yard on which it faces, more than thirty feet
     without a window opening on a lawful court.

4.   a.   Nothing in this section or section twenty-six
          shall be construed as prohibiting the windows or doors
          of any room from opening on a partially-enclosed
          balcony or space above a setback, provided such balcony
          or space opens directly to a street or to a lawful yard
          or court and the area of the front of the balcony or
          space which is open to the outer air is at least equal
          to seventy-five per centum of the floor surface area of
          such balcony or space. Any living room thus lighted and
          ventilated by windows or doors opening on such balcony
          or space shall be at most thirty feet in depth measured
          from the extreme outer face of the wall forming the
          partial enclosure of the balcony or space. The windows
          or doors providing light and ventilation for a room or
          rooms opening exclusively on such a balcony or space
          shall have altogether at least the area of one-tenth of
          the combined floor surface of such room or rooms and
          the portion of the balcony or space directly adjoining
          and in front of such room or rooms.

     b.   On a fireproof dwelling a balcony or space above a
          setback permitted under paragraph a of this subdivision
          may be completely enclosed, provided the outer
          enclosing wall or walls and roof are constructed of
          incombustible materials and the walls are glazed with
          clear plate glass or plastic equivalent and such glazed
          wall area is equal to at least fifty per centum of the
          area of the interior walls enclosing such balcony or
          space. At least fifty per centum of the glazed area
          shall be openable directly upon a street or upon a
          lawful yard or court. No window shall open from any
          bathroom, water-closet compartment or cooking space
          upon such enclosed balcony.

     c.   The enclosure on any balcony or a space above a setback
          shall not (1) be more than one story in height or (2)
          be erected in violation of the provisions of paragraph
          a of subdivision six of section one hundred two of this
          chapter.

5.   No multiple dwelling shall be so altered as to diminish the
     light or ventilation of any room or public hall or stairs in
     any way not approved by the department.

6.   No window shall be required in any public room of a
     fireproof multiple dwelling if such room is used solely for
     storage purposes or has adequate mechanical ventilation
     maintained to provide at least the number of changes of the
     air volume of such room approved by the department as
     necessary for the health and safety of the occupants of such
     dwelling. Any fresh air supply system required by the
     department for such purposes shall be provided with adequate
     means for removing dust from the incoming air and with
     adequate means to heat such air at least to sixty degrees
     Fahrenheit.

7.   No required window shall open upon any offset or recess less
     than six feet in width except a window of a water-closet
     compartment, bathroom, or stair or of a cooking compartment
     less than fifty-nine square feet in floor surface area.

8.   (a)  The windows in every room, except a water-closet
          compartment, bathroom, or cooking space less than fifty-
          nine square feet in floor surface area, shall have a
          total area at least one-tenth of the floor surface area
          of such room and every window in such a room, including
          a mullioned casement window, shall be at least twelve
          square feet in area.

     (b)  All required windows shall be so constructed that at
          least one-half of their required area may be opened,
          except that a mullioned casement window, if otherwise
          large enough to supply the window requirements of the
          room, need be readily openable to the outer air only to
          the extent of five and one-half square feet of its
          area.

     (c)  Where fresh air is furnished in any room through a
          mechanical ventilating unit or system which is an
          integral part of the dwelling structure and capable of
          introducing not less than forty cubic feet of air per
          minute, the required window area in such room need be
          openable only to the extent of twenty-five percent of
          such window area but in no event less than five and one-
          half square feet.

9.   Transoms or partition sash, or louvres having a minimum area
     of 144 square inches and arranged to be opened or closed,
     shall be provided to private halls or to adjoining rooms to
     secure through-ventilation whenever required by the
     department, but no such transom or partition sash or louvre
     shall be required in a room having two windows opening to
     the outer air if each window is at least nine square feet in
     area, or in a room having a mullioned or single window with
     an aggregate area of at least eighteen square feet.

10.  All windows and their assemblies in walls situated on a lot
     line, except those facing on a street, shall be fireproof,
     with assemblies having a fire-resistive rating of at least
     three-quarters of an hour and glazed with wire glass at
     least one-quarter of an inch thick. Every opening in a wall
     situated on a lot line which is less than fifty feet in a
     vertical direction above a non-fireproof roof of another
     structure within a distance of thirty feet of the wall in
     which the opening is located shall be an automatic fireproof
     window.


Sec. 31.  Size of rooms.

1.   The provisions of this section, except subdivision six,
     shall apply only to multiple dwellings erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, and shall apply to
     all such dwellings unless otherwise expressly limited.

2.   Except as in this section and in section thirty-three
     otherwise expressly provided, rooms, except kitchens, water-
     closet compartments and bathrooms, shall meet the following
     minimum requirements as to size:

     a.   In each apartment in a class A multiple dwelling there
          shall least one living room containing at least one
          hundred thirty-two square feet of floor area.

     b.   Every living room, except as provided in paragraph e,
          shall contain at least eighty square feet of floor
          space.

     c.   Every room shall be at least eight feet high, the
          measurements to be taken from the finished floor to the
          finished underside of the ceiling beams except that as
          many as four beams crossing the ceiling of be at any
          basement room may be disregarded if none of them
          exceeds twelve inches in width or extends below the
          ceiling more than six inches.

     d.   Every living room shall be at least eight feet in its
          least horizontal dimension, except as provided in
          paragraph e and except that any number of bedrooms up
          to one-half of the total number in any apartment
          containing three or more bedrooms may have a least
          horizontal dimension of seven feet or more.

     e.   A one-room apartment in a class B multiple dwelling may
          be as small as sixty square feet in its floor area and
          six feet in its least dimension.

3.   The requirements of this section with respect to the least
     horizontal dimension and the minimum area of rooms shall not
     be applicable to any room in a fireproof class B multiple
     dwelling occupied as a lodging house in which every
     apartment, other than one apartment occupied exclusively by
     a person or persons engaged in the maintenance or
     supervision of such multiple dwelling, consists of one room
     and in which every such room opens directly upon a public
     hall.

4.   Dining bays with a floor area of fifty-five square feet or
     less shall not be considered as rooms or alcoves and shall
     not be required to comply with the provisions of section
     thirty-two. Every such dining bay shall be equipped with
     such appropriate permanent fittings as may be required by
     the department and shall be provided with at least one
     window opening directly upon a street or upon a lawful yard,
     court or space above a setback. Such window shall have an
     area of at least one-eighth of the floor area of such dining
     bay.

5.   A portion of any apartment used as an entrance hall to such
     apartment may be designated as a foyer. Such a foyer shall
     not be considered a room if the department shall so permit
     and if either

     a.   Its floor area does not exceed ten per centum of the
          total floor area of such apartment, or

     b.   Every room in such apartment exceeds in area the
          minimum required area of such room by more than twenty
          per centum and the floor area of such foyer does not
          exceed twenty per centum of the floor area of such
          apartment.

6.   a.   Except in class B dwellings and dormitories, no
          room shall be occupied for sleeping purposes by more
          than two adults, considering children of twelve years
          of age or more as adults and two children between the
          ages of two and eleven years inclusive as the
          equivalent of one adult. Children under two years of
          age need not be considered as occupants. No room shall
          have sleeping accommodations for more persons than can
          be accommodated in conformity with the provisions of
          this subdivision.

     b.   Every room in every dwelling, whenever erected, shall
          have at least four hundred cubic feet of air for each
          adult, and two hundred cubic feet of air for each child
          occupying such room. Except in class B dwellings,
          dormitories and except as otherwise provided in
          subdivision two of section thirty-one or in section
          thirty-four for dwellings erected after April
          eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, and in
          sections one hundred seventy-four, two hundred fourteen
          and two hundred sixteen, every living room shall (1)
          contain sixty square feet or more of floor space, (2)
          be at least six feet wide at its narrowest part, (3) if
          a sleeping room, contain seventy-five square feet or
          more of floor space and (4) if less than seventy-five
          square feet in floor area, shall not be occupied by
          more than one adult.


Sec. 32.  Alcoves.

1.   Every alcove, except a lawful cooking space, opening from
     any room in any multiple dwelling erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, shall be
     separately lighted and ventilated as provided for other
     rooms in section thirty. It shall have a floor area of at
     least seventy square feet, a least horizontal dimension of
     at least seven feet and an opening at least sixty square
     feet in area into the room which it adjoins.

2.   Except for cubicles permitted in lodging houses, no part of
     any room in any multiple dwelling erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, shall be enclosed
     or subdivided at any time, wholly or in part, by a curtain,
     portiere, fixed or movable partition or other contrivance or
     device, unless each such enclosure or subdivision shall
     contain a separate window as required for a room by section
     thirty and a floor space of at least seventy square feet.


Sec. 33.  Cooking spaces.

1.   Every space which is intended, arranged or designed for
     cooking or warming of food shall be either a kitchen or
     kitchenette. The term "kitchen" shall mean such a space
     fifty-nine square feet or more in floor area. The term
     "kitchenette" shall mean such a space which is less than
     fifty-nine square feet in floor area.

2.   Every cooking space shall be deemed to be in compliance with
     this section if such space was accepted or approved by the
     department on or before July first, nineteen hundred fifty-
     two, and is maintained in accordance with such acceptance or
     approval.

3.   Except as provided in sections sixty-one and sixty-seven and
     subdivision two of this section, a kitchen or kitchenette
     shall be unlawful unless it is constructed, arranged and
     maintained in compliance with the following applicable
     provisions:

     a.   The ceiling and walls, exclusive of doors, of all
          kitchenettes shall be fire-retarded or in lieu thereof
          such space shall be equipped with one or more sprinkler
          heads to fuse at a temperature not higher than two
          hundred twelve degrees Fahrenheit. Such heads shall be
          connected to the water supply through a pipe of at
          least one-half inch inside diameter.

     b.   In every kitchen and kitchenette, all combustible
          material immediately underneath or within one foot of
          any apparatus used for cooking or warming of food shall
          be fire-retarded or covered with asbestos at least
          three-sixteenths of an inch in thickness and twenty-six
          gauge metal or with fire-resistive material of
          equivalent rating, except where such apparatus is
          installed in accordance with requirements established
          by the department in conformity with generally accepted
          safety standards for such apparatus. There shall always
          be at least two feet of clear space above any exposed
          cooking surface of such apparatus.

     c.   Every kitchenette constructed after July first,
          nineteen hundred forty-nine, shall be provided with a
          window opening upon a street or upon a yard, court,
          shaft, or upon any space above a setback. Such window
          shall be at least one foot wide, have a total area of
          at least three square feet and be at least ten per
          centum of the superficial floor area of such
          kitchenette. In lieu of such window, such kitchenette
          may be provided with mechanical ventilation to provide
          at least six changes per hour of the air volume of such
          kitchenette or, when such kitchenette is on the top
          story, may have a skylight at least one foot wide with
          a total area of at least four square feet or one-eighth
          of the area of the kitchenette, whichever is greater,
          and shall have ventilating openings of at least one-
          half of the area of the skylight.

     d.   Every kitchenette constructed after July first,
          nineteen hundred forty-nine, may be equipped with a
          door or doors, provided the lower portion of each such
          door has a metal grille containing at least forty-eight
          square inches of clear openings or, in lieu of such a
          grille, there are two clear open spaces, each of at
          least twenty-four square inches, one between the bottom
          of the door and the floor, and the other between the
          top of each such door and the head jamb.

     e.   Every kitchen and kitchenette shall be provided with
          gas or electricity or both, and shall be equipped for
          artificial lighting.


Sec. 34.  Rooms in basements and cellars.

1.   In any multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, every room in a cellar or
     basement shall have a permit as provided in subdivision five
     of section three hundred and, except as provided in
     subdivision six of this section, shall comply with the
     following conditions:

     a.   Such rooms shall be everywhere at least eight feet high
          from the floor to the ceiling, except that in a
          basement room as many as four beams twelve inches or
          less in width and extending six inches or less below
          the ceiling may be disregarded.

     b.   Except as otherwise provided in paragraph f, the
          ceiling of every such room in the front part of the
          dwelling, or in an apartment or suite extending to the
          front part, shall be at every point of such room at
          least four feet six inches above the curb level
          directly in front of such point on the street in front
          of the dwelling; and the ceiling of every other such
          room, unless the yard of the dwelling is sixty feet or
          more in depth or extends to a street along its entire
          width, shall be at every point of such room at least
          two feet above the curb level directly in front of such
          point on the street in front of the dwelling. Every
          yard or court upon which any such cellar or basement
          room or apartment opens shall, conform to the
          requirements of subdivision eight of section twenty-
          six. Every such room, except as otherwise provided in
          paragraphs e and f, shall be an integral part of an
          apartment or suite containing at least one room with a
          window opening directly upon a street or yard. Except
          as provided in paragraphs e and f, and if the yard of
          such a dwelling is less than sixty feet in depth there
          shall be not more than one apartment or suite in any
          cellar therein and any such apartment or suite shall
          contain not more than five rooms, shall be supplied
          with water closet and bath accommodations, and shall
          not open upon any court less than five feet in width.
          Every part of such an apartment or suite shall either
          be within twenty-five feet of the inner surface of the
          front or rear wall of the dwelling or have a window
          opening upon a court of at least the dimensions
          prescribed in section twenty-six but never less than
          ten feet wide.

     c.   Every such cellar or basement room shall have access to
          a water-closet constructed and arranged as prescribed
          in section seventy-six.

     d.   Every such room shall have a window or windows
          complying with the requirements of section thirty. The
          aggregate area of windows in each such room, except as
          provided in paragraph f, shall be at least one-eighth
          of the horizontal area of the room. Each such window
          shall be constructed so that the upper half of its area
          can be opened, and shall open upon a street, court or
          yard. The underside of the top stop-bead of each such
          window shall be within twelve inches of the ceiling.
          One window in each such room shall have an area of at
          least twelve square feet.

     e.   In addition to a janitor's apartment three rooms or
          less may also be provided in the cellar of such a
          dwelling exclusively for the use of persons regularly
          and continuously employed in the maintenance of such
          dwelling. Every such room shall be completely separated
          from any other room or private hall and shall comply
          with all the provisions respecting a janitor's
          apartment except those relating to water-closet and
          bath, but there shall be at least one water-closet and
          bath accessible from each such room without passing
          through a janitor's apartment. No other rooms in such a
          cellar shall be occupied for living or sleeping
          purposes, except as permitted in paragraphs b and f.
          Whenever a janitor's apartment in the cellar of such a
          dwelling, or a room therein, is expressly excepted from
          a requirement in any provision of this chapter, such
          exception shall apply also to any cellar room lawfully
          occupied as in this paragraph provided.

     f.    (1)  When the lot of such a dwelling abuts upon
                two or more streets and the difference in level
                between the highest and the lowest points of the
                curbs adjoining the lot is more than ten feet, a
                room below the highest curb point may be used
                for living purposes provided it opens upon a
                street or upon a lawful court or yard which
                connects directly with a street or, if the floor
                of such room is not more than twelve feet below
                the highest curb point, upon an interior court
                with a least dimension of not less than thirty
                feet if such court is situated on a lot line,
                and otherwise with a least dimension not less
                than fifty feet. Every such room shall be at
                least nine feet high from finished floor to
                finished ceiling. When any such room or an
                apartment containing it faces a street, the
                ceiling of the room at every point shall be at
                least four feet six inches above the curb level
                of such street directly in front of such point.
                For the purpose of determining the required
                dimensions of a court or yard of any dwelling
                subject to the provisions of this sub-paragraph,
                the height of such dwelling shall be measured
                from the lowest point of such court or yard.

          (2)   When the lot of such a multiple dwelling does
                not run through from street to street and there
                is a difference in level exceeding twenty feet
                between the highest point of the curb in front
                of the dwelling and the lowest point of the curb
                on a street directly in the rear of the dwelling
                which street is within one hundred twenty-five
                feet of the rear line of the lot, a room below
                the level of the highest point of the curb in
                front of the dwelling may be used for living
                purposes provided such room opens upon a yard or
                a court adjoining a yard. The floor of any such
                room shall be at least six inches above the
                level of every part of every yard and court upon
                which such room opens and of the curb on the
                street in the rear of such dwelling and also of
                all intervening ground between the rear street
                and the rear lot line. Every such room shall be
                at least nine feet high from finished floor to
                finished ceiling. The required dimensions of a
                yard, or of a court adjoining a yard, on which
                such a room opens in any dwelling subject to the
                provisions of this sub-paragraph, shall be
                determined by the height of such dwelling
                measured from the lowest point of such yard or
                court.

          (3)   In any portion of a multiple dwelling arranged
                for living purposes below the curb level under
                authority of either of the sub-paragraphs above
                there shall be no wood beams, wood lintels or
                other wood structural members, nor shall any
                wood or other inflammable material be used in
                any partitions, furrings or ceilings.

2.   Every multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, whenever the department shall
     deem it necessary, shall have all walls below the ground
     level and all cellar or lower floors damp-proofed and water-
     proofed. Such damp-proofing and water-proofing shall run
     throughout the cellar or other lowest floor and through and
     up the walls as high as the ground level.

3.   Every cellar and basement in every multiple dwelling shall
     be properly lighted and ventilated to the satisfaction of
     the department.

4.   In every multiple dwelling the cellar walls and ceilings,
     except in rooms occupied as provided in paragraph f of
     subdivision one or in subdivision six, shall either be
     constructed of light-colored material or be thoroughly
     whitewashed or painted a light color by the owner, and shall
     be so maintained. Such whitewash or paint shall be renewed
     whenever necessary, as may be determined and required by the
     department.

5.   Notwithstanding any provisions of this section or of
     subdivision five of section three hundred, an apartment or
     room in a cellar which was occupied for living purposes at
     any time on or after October first, nineteen hundred fifty-
     two may thereafter continue to be occupied for such purposes
     until July first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, in
     accordance with the conditions imposed by subdivision five
     of section two hundred sixteen.

6.   An apartment in a cellar or basement of any multiple
     dwelling may be used for living purposes provided all of the
     following conditions are complied with:

     a.   Such apartment has at least one half of its height and
          all of its window surfaces above every part of an
          "adequate adjacent space." Such "adequate adjacent
          space" shall be open to the sky, shall be properly
          drained to the satisfaction of the department, and
          shall be a continuous surface area outside the dwelling
          not less than thirty feet in its least dimension and
          abutting at same level, or directly below, every part
          of the exterior walls of such apartment and of every
          other apartment on the same floor. Such "adequate
          adjacent space" shall include only space which is
          located on the same lot or plot as the dwelling or on a
          street or public place or space.

     b.   Every living room of such apartment is everywhere at
          least eight feet high from the floor to the ceiling in
          dwellings erected after July first, nineteen hundred
          fifty-seven, and seven feet in dwellings erected prior
          thereto.

     c.   All parts of the exterior walls of the dwelling which
          are below ground level and on the same floor as such
          apartment or above such floor are dampproof to the
          satisfaction of the department and the floor of such
          apartment is dampproof and waterproof.

     d.   The yard and every court of the dwelling containing
          such apartment are adequately drained to the
          satisfaction of the department.

     e.   If any part of the apartment is below the "adequate
          adjacent space" referred to in paragraph a of this
          subdivision, all ceilings, walls and partitions of such
          apartment are fire-retarded or the rooms and spaces
          within such apartment are protected by a sprinkler
          system to the satisfaction of the department.

     f.   Such apartment and every part of the floor on which it
          is situated meet all of the requirements which would be
          in effect for such floor if none of the rooms thereon
          were used for living purposes.

     g.   Such apartment complies with all of the requirements
          for apartments in the same dwelling which are not in a
          cellar or basement.

     h.   The floor on which such apartment is situated, if a
          cellar, shall nevertheless be counted as a story for
          the purpose of all requirements except those relating
          to the height of the dwelling.


Sec. 35.  Entrance doors and lights.

In every multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
nineteen hundred twenty-nine, every door giving access to an
entrance hall from outside the dwelling shall contain at least
five square feet of glazed surface. The width of every such door
shall be at least seventy-five per centum of the required clear
width of such entrance hall as provided in section fifty, except
that when a series of such entrance doors is provided their
aggregate clear width shall not be less than seventy-five per
centum of the required width of the entrance hall and the clear
width of each of the doors separately shall be at least two feet
six inches. Such a door opening upon a street or a court
extending to a street may be of wood. Such a door opening upon a
yard or upon a court not extending to a street shall be
fireproof.

The owner of every multiple dwelling shall install and maintain a
light or lights at or near the outside of the front entrance-way
of the building which shall in the aggregate provide not less
than fifty watts incandescent illumination for a building with a
frontage up to twenty-two feet and one hundred watts incandescent
illumination for a building with a frontage in excess of twenty-
two feet, or equivalent illumination and shall be kept burning
from sunset every day to sunrise on the day following. In the
case of a multiple dwelling with a frontage in excess of twenty-
two feet, the front entrance doors of which have a combined width
in excess of five feet, there shall be at least two lights, one
at each side of the entrance way, with an aggregate illumination
of one hundred fifty watts or equivalent illumination. In
enforcing this provision the department shall permit owners to
determine for themselves the actual location, design and nature
of the installation of such light or lights to meet practical,
aesthetic and other considerations, so long as the minimum level
of illumination is maintained.


Sec. 36.  Windows and skylights for public halls and stairs.

1.   In every multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, one at least of the required
     windows provided to light each public hall or part thereof
     shall be at least two feet six inches wide and five feet
     high. Every required window in such a hall shall open upon a
     street, court, yard or space above a setback. On the top
     story of such a dwelling a ventilating skylight of the same
     dimensions shall be accepted in lieu of a window for that
     story.

2.   In every multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, there shall be in the roof,
     directly over each required stair, fire-stair and fire-
     tower, a ventilating skylight provided with ventilators
     having a minimum opening of forty square inches or with
     fixed or movable louvres. The roof of every such skylight
     shall be glazed with plain glass and equipped with suitable
     wire screens above and below. The glazed area of every such
     skylight shall be at least twenty square feet, except that
     in a class A dwelling or section thereof two stories or less
     in height and occupied by not more than two families on each
     story and in dwellings three stories in height erected
     pursuant to plans filed with the department on or after May
     first, nineteen hundred fifty-nine and occupied by not more
     than one family on each story, the glazed area of such a
     skylight need be only nine square feet. In lieu of a
     skylight a window of the same area as prescribed in
     subdivision one may be provided. If such a window is used in
     lieu of a skylight, fixed louvres having a minimum opening
     of forty square inches shall also be installed in or
     directly adjacent to such window.

3.   When any stair, fire-stair or fire-tower in such a dwelling
     terminates at the level of a setback of an outer wall and
     such setback consists of a terrace at least four feet in
     width, measured between the inside of the parapet wall and
     the wall of the building, and at least ten feet in length,
     measured parallel to the wall of the building, there may be
     provided in lieu of such a skylight a fire-proof door and
     assembly with the door self-closing giving access from such
     stair, fire-stair or fire-tower to such terrace. Such door
     shall have a panel at least five square feet in area glazed
     with wire glass and shall be equipped with fixed or movable
     louvres with an opening of at least forty square inches.


Sec. 37.  Artificial hall lighting.

1.   In every multiple dwelling the owner shall provide a light
     or lights, each of at least sixty watts incandescent or
     twenty watts cool white fluorescent or equivalent
     illumination, for every vestibule and entrance hall in every
     public hall, stair, fire-stair and fire-tower on every
     floor. Said light or lights shall be located as prescribed
     by the department, but, in every stair, fire-stair or fire-
     tower, shall be so located that every part thereof shall be
     lighted.

2.   Except as provided in subdivision three, every such light
     shall be turned on by the owner at sunset every day and
     shall not be turned off by the owner until the following
     sunrise. Every such light shall be kept burning daily from
     sunset until sunrise, but if it becomes extinguished and
     remains so without the knowledge or consent of the owner he
     shall not be liable. The burden shall be upon the owner to
     show that the light became and remained extinguished without
     his knowledge or consent.

3.   Every light in every fire-stair and fire-tower at every
     story, and in every stair and public hall at every story
     where there is no window opening to the outer air, shall be
     kept burning continuously except that this provision shall
     not apply to public halls lighted as provided in subdivision
     eleven of section two hundred seventeen.

4.   When the natural light in any public hall in a multiple
     dwelling is not sufficient to permit a person to read the
     names on a mail box or other receptacle for mail, the owner
     shall install a lighting fixture directly over such mail box
     or receptacle and maintain it in serviceable condition, so
     that a light may be turned on at any time for the
     convenience of tenants or the mail carrier.


                             TITLE 2
                   FIRE PROTECTION AND SAFETY

Sec. 50.  Entrance halls.

Every entrance hall in every multiple dwelling erected after
April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, shall be at least
four feet in clear width from the entrance to the first stair,
and beyond that shall be at least three feet eight inches in
clear width. If such an entrance hall is the only entrance to
more than one flight of stairs, the required width of such hall
shall be increased in every part, for each such additional flight
of stairs, by one-half the width required for one flight of
stairs.


Sec. 50-a.     Entrances: doors, locks and intercommunication
               systems.

1.   Every entrance from the street, passageway, court, yard,
     cellar, or similar entrance to a class A multiple dwelling
     erected or converted after January first, nineteen hundred
     sixty-eight, except an entrance leading to the main entrance
     hall or lobby which main entrance hall or lobby is equipped
     with one or more automatic self-locking doors, shall be
     equipped with automatic self-closing and self-locking doors
     and such doors shall be locked at all times except when an
     attendant shall actually be on duty. Every entrance from the
     roof to such a dwelling shall be equipped with a self-
     closing door which shall not be self-locking and which shall
     be fastened on the inside with movable bolts, hooks or a
     lock which does not require a key to open from inside the
     dwelling.

2.   Every class A multiple dwelling erected or converted after
     January first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight containing eight
     or more apartments shall also be equipped with an
     intercommunication system. Such intercommunication system
     shall be located at an automatic self-locking door giving
     public access to the main entrance hall or lobby of said
     multiple dwelling and shall consist of a device or devices
     for voice communication between the occupant of each
     apartment and a person outside said door to the main
     entrance hall or lobby and to permit such apartment occupant
     to release the locking mechanism of said door from the
     apartment.

3.   On or after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-nine,
     every class A multiple dwelling erected or converted prior
     to January first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, shall be
     equipped with automatic self-closing and self-locking doors,
     which doors shall be kept locked except when an attendant
     shall actually be on duty, and with the intercommunication
     system described in paragraph two of this section, provided
     that tenants occupying a majority of all the apartments
     within the structure comprising the multiple dwelling
     affected request or consent in writing to the installation
     of such doors and intercommunication system on forms which
     shall be prescribed by the department, except that in the
     event a majority of tenants in occupancy request or consent
     on or after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, to
     the installation of such doors or intercommunication system
     such installation shall be started within ninety days, but
     need not be completed until six months after the owner's
     receipt of requests or consents by a majority of the
     tenants, except that in any such multiple dwelling owned or
     operated by a municipal housing authority organized pursuant
     to article thirteen of the public housing law, such
     installation need not be completed until one year after the
     owner's receipt of requests or consents by a majority of the
     tenants. If the dwelling is subject to regulation and
     control of its residential rents pursuant to the local
     emergency housing rent control act, the local city housing
     rent agency shall upon the filing of executed forms
     containing the required requests or consents, prescribe the
     terms under which the costs of providing such doors and
     intercommunication systems may be recovered by the owner
     from the tenants. In any multiple dwelling built pursuant to
     the provisions of the redevelopment companies law in which
     residential rents are limited by contract, the costs of
     providing such doors and intercommunication systems may be
     recovered by the owner from the tenants. The terms under
     which such costs may be recovered shall be the same as those
     prescribed by the local city housing rent agency in the city
     in which the multiple dwelling is located for dwellings
     subject to regulation and control of rent pursuant to the
     local emergency housing rent control act. Such costs shall
     not be deemed to be "rent" as that term is limited and
     defined in the contract.

4.   All such self-closing and self-locking doors, and
     intercommunication systems shall be of a type approved by
     the department and by such other department as may be
     prescribed by law and shall be installed and maintained in a
     manner prescribed by the department and by such other
     department.

5.   Every owner who shall fail to install and maintain the
     equipment required by this section, in the manner prescribed
     by the department, and by such other department as may be
     prescribed by law, and any person who shall wilfully
     destroy, damage, or jam or otherwise interfere with the
     proper operation of, or remove, without justification, such
     equipment or any part thereof shall be guilty of a
     misdemeanor as provided in subdivision one of section three
     hundred four of the multiple dwelling law and shall be
     punishable as provided therein.


Sec. 50-c.     Rights of tenants to operate and maintain a lobby
               attendant service.

1.   Tenants of every class A multiple dwelling containing eight
     or more apartments shall be entitled to maintain and operate
     a lobby attendant service for such multiple dwelling at any
     time or times when an attendant hired or furnished by the
     owner thereof shall not be on duty. Such lobby attendants so
     maintained by such tenants shall be engaged solely for
     security purposes and shall perform no acts or duties other
     than those which shall be directly related to the safety and
     security of occupants and visitors to such building while in
     and about the public portions thereof and no owner shall
     unreasonably hinder, interfere with, obstruct or prohibit
     the maintenance and operation of such service, provided that
     each attendant so engaged by tenants shall at all times when
     on duty be stationed at and remain in the entrance halls or
     public lobbies of the building adjacent to the main entrance
     thereto, and provided further that no owner of such building
     shall be in any manner liable or responsible for any injury
     to any such attendant or for any damage or injury arising
     out of or resulting from any act or omission of any such
     attendant or for the payment of any wages or other
     compensation to such attendants. The lobby attendants
     furnished, operated or maintained by tenants pursuant to
     this section may consist of or include tenants or other
     occupants of the multiple dwelling and may include either
     volunteer or paid personnel or a combination thereof.

2.   Any agent, owner or other person who shall unreasonably
     interfere, hinder, obstruct or prohibit the installation,
     maintenance and operation of any such lobby attendant or
     shall unreasonably hinder or interfere with the performance
     of the duties of such lobby attendant engaged pursuant to
     this section, shall be guilty of a violation with a maximum
     fine not to exceed fifty dollars.


Sec. 51.  Shafts, elevators and dumbwaiters.

1.   Every shaft constructed after April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twenty-nine, in any multiple dwelling shall be
     enclosed on all sides with fireproof walls and shall have
     fireproof doors and assemblies at all openings, with the
     doors self-closing. Dumbwaiter shafts, except those
     adjoining public halls, may be constructed with walls of
     gypsum plaster blocks approved by the department, at least
     two inches thick if solid and at least three inches thick if
     hollow.

2.   All dumbwaiter doors constructed after such date shall be
     fastened by an interior lock in the shaft operated and
     controlled from a central point in the cellar or lowest
     story if there be no cellar.

3.   The doors of every elevator shaft constructed after such
     date shall be provided with an automatic device approved by
     the department to prevent the normal operation of the
     elevator unless the hoistway door at which the car is
     standing is closed and locked, or unless all hoistway doors
     are locked in a closed position. Such doors may have a
     vision panel of wire glass not exceeding one square foot in
     area.

4.   Every elevator installed after such date shall be equipped
     with a gate with an automatic device approved by the
     department to prevent the normal operation of such elevator
     unless such gate is closed.

5.   When any elevator or dumbwaiter constructed after such date
     opens into more than one stair, elevator vestibule or other
     public hall on any floor, such elevator or dumbwaiter shall
     be placed in a separate shaft. Not more than three elevators
     or two dumbwaiters shall ever be placed in the same shaft.

6.   Every dwelling erected after such date which exceeds six
     stories or sixty feet in height shall be equipped with one
     or more passenger elevators, operative at all times, at
     least one of which shall be accessible to every apartment
     above the entrance story.

7.   In every multiple dwelling, elevator shafts, not previously
     enclosed to the satisfaction of the department, shall be
     enclosed with fireproof walls and shall have fireproof doors
     and assemblies, with the doors self-closing.


Sec. 51-a.     Peepholes.

In every multiple dwelling the owner shall provide and maintain a
peephole in the entrance door of each housing unit. Such peephole
shall be located, as prescribed by the department, but shall be
so located as to enable a person in such housing unit to view
from the inside of the entrance door any person immediately
outside of the entrance door to such housing unit. The provisions
of this section shall not apply to hotels or apartment hotels or
to college or school dormitories.


Sec. 51-b.     Mirrors in connection with self-service elevators.

In all multiple dwellings in which there are one or more self-
service passenger elevators, there shall, pursuant to such
regulations as the department shall prescribe, be affixed and
maintained in each such elevator a mirror which will enable
persons prior to entering into such elevator to view the inside
thereof to determine whether any person is in such elevator.


Sec. 51-c.     Rights of tenants to install and maintain locks in
               certain entrance doors.

Every tenant of a multiple dwelling, except a tenant of a
multiple dwelling under the supervision and control of a
municipal housing authority, occupied by him, except as a hotel
or motel, or college or school dormitory, shall have the right to
install and maintain or cause to be installed and maintained in
the entrance door of his particular housing unit in such multiple
dwelling, a lock, separate and apart from any lock installed and
maintained by the owner of such multiple dwelling, not more than
three inches in circumference, as an ordinary incident to his
tenancy, provided that a duplicate key to such lock shall be
supplied to the landlord or his agent upon his request; and every
provision of any lease hereafter made or entered into which
reserves or provides for the payment by such tenant of any
additional rent, bonus, fee or other charge or any other thing of
value for the right or privilege of installing and/or maintaining
any such lock, shall be deemed to be void as against public
policy and wholly unenforceable.


Sec. 52.  Stairs.

1.   In every multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, every interior stair, fire-
     stair and fire-tower and every exterior stair in connection
     with any dwelling altered or erected after January first,
     nineteen hundred fifty-one, shall be provided with proper
     balustrades or railings and all such interior and exterior
     stairs shall be kept in good repair and free from any
     encumbrance. Every such stair, fire-stair and fire-tower
     more than three feet eight inches wide shall be provided
     with a handrail on each side.

2.   The upper surface of every balustrade or railing placed in
     any stair after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
     nine, shall be at least two feet six inches and at most two
     feet eight inches above the front edge of the stair treads,
     and at any stair landing shall be at least two feet eight
     inches and at most three feet above the level of such
     landing.

3.   The treads and risers of every stair, fire-stair and fire-
     tower constructed after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, in any multiple dwelling shall be of uniform
     height and width in any one flight. Each tread, exclusive of
     nosing, shall be not less than nine and one-half inches
     wide; each riser shall not exceed seven and three-quarters
     inches in height; and the product of the number of inches in
     the width of the tread and the number of inches in the
     height of the riser shall be at least seventy and at most
     seventy-five.

4.   No winding stairs shall be constructed in any multiple
     dwelling.

5.   a.   Except as otherwise provided in paragraph b of
          this subdivision, every stair constructed after April
          eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, leading to a
          cellar or basement from the first story above shall be
          entirely enclosed with fireproof walls and be provided
          with fireproof doors and assemblies at both top and
          bottom, with the doors self-closing; except that, in a
          non-fireproof multiple dwelling erected before such
          date, where such a stair is permitted such enclosing
          walls may be fire-retarded.

     b.   When the first floor or a part thereof, in a fireproof
          multiple dwelling, is used for business purposes, a
          stair leading to a cellar or basement from such
          business space shall be enclosed in fireproof walls
          having a fire-resistive rating of at least three hours
          and be provided with a fireproof door and assembly at
          the bottom, with the door self-closing. No opening
          shall be permitted between such business space and the
          remainder of the dwelling.

6.   The department shall have the power to make supplementary
     regulations relating to fire-towers.

7.   In every multiple dwelling erected under plans filed with
     the department after January first, nineteen hundred sixty,
     on every story above the entrance story every door opening
     into such stair shall be so hung and arranged that in
     opening and when opened it shall at no point reduce the
     clear and unobstructed required width of the stair or stair
     landing.

8.   The provisions of this section shall not apply to a stair
     within an apartment provided that each level of the
     apartment is provided with required means of egress
     complying with the provisions of this article.


Sec. 53.  Fire-escapes.

Every fire-escape erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
hundred twenty-nine, shall be located, arranged, constructed and
maintained in accordance with the following provisions:

1.   Access to a fire-escape shall be from a living room or
     private hall in each apartment or suite of rooms at each
     story above the entrance story, and such access shall not
     include any window of a stairhall.

     a.   Such room or private hall shall be an integral part of
          such apartment or suite of rooms and accessible to
          every room thereof without passing through a public
          hall.

     b.   When one or more living rooms of any apartment are
          rented to boarders or lodgers, every such room shall be
          directly accessible to a fire-escape without passing
          through a public hall, and for separately occupied
          living rooms access to fire-escapes shall be direct
          from such rooms without passing through a public hall
          or any other separately occupied room, except as may be
          permitted for dormitories in section sixty-six.

     c.   Access to any fire-escape shall not be obstructed by
          sinks or kitchen fixtures or in any other way. Iron
          bars, grilles, gates, or other obstructing devices on
          any window giving access to fire-escapes or to a
          required secondary means of egress shall be unlawful
          unless such devices are of a type approved by the board
          of appeals and are installed and maintained as
          prescribed by the board; provided, however, that in a
          city having a population of one million or more, such
          devices shall be of a type approved, installed and
          maintained as prescribed by the fire commissioner, or
          as previously approved and prescribed by the board of
          standards and appeals of such city, except as otherwise
          provided by said commissioner.

     d.   Every such fire-escape shall be accessible to one or
          more exterior doors or windows opening from the room,
          apartment, suite of rooms or other space which it
          serves as means of egress, and such window or door
          shall be two feet or more in clear width and two feet
          six inches or more in clear height. The sill of any
          such window shall be within three feet of the floor.

2.   A required fire-escape may be erected in any of the
     following places:

     a.   On a wall facing a street or yard;

     b.   In a court of a non-fireproof multiple dwelling to
          serve an apartment or suite of rooms which does not
          contain any room fronting upon a street or yard, or in
          any inner court thirty-five feet or more in its least
          horizontal dimension, provided the fire-escape does not
          project more than four feet from the wall of the
          dwelling and is directly connected at the bottom of
          such court with a fireproof passageway at least three
          feet wide and seven feet high leading directly to a
          street unless the court itself leads to a street;

     c.   In any outer court eighteen feet or more in width and
          thirty feet or less in length;

     d.   In any outer court more than eighteen feet in width the
          length of which does not exceed its width by more than
          seventy per centum;

     e.   In any outer court ten feet or more in width at every
          point and situated on a lot line;

     f.   In any outer court seven feet or more in width at every
          point which is situated on a lot line and extends from
          a street to a yard;

     g.   In a recess on the front wall of a multiple dwelling,
          provided the recess does not exceed five feet in depth,
          is used solely for fire-escape purposes and has seventy-
          five per centum or more of its area open to the street,
          and is otherwise unenclosed and open at the top. No
          such recess shall be counted as a part of the
          unoccupied area of the premises or be construed as a
          court unless its entire area is open to the street.

3.   No fire-escape may project more than four and one-half feet
     into a public highway from the lot line of the multiple
     dwelling it serves. Every part of such fire-escape shall be
     at least ten feet above any sidewalk directly below.

4.   a.   Every fire-escape shall be constructed of open
          balconies and stairways of iron or stone capable of
          sustaining a load of at least eighty pounds per square
          foot. The use or reuse of old materials or cast iron in
          the construction of fire-escapes shall be unlawful.

     b.   Balconies for fire-escapes shall be three feet or more
          in clear width except that a party-wall balcony as
          permitted by paragraph f of subdivision one of section
          one hundred eighty-seven may be two feet in clear
          width.

     c.   Every stairway shall be placed at an angle of sixty
          degrees or less with flat open steps at least six
          inches in width and twenty inches in length and with a
          maximum rise of nine inches. The opening in any balcony
          for such a stairway shall be at least twenty-one by
          twenty-eight inches.

5.   a.   There shall be provided from the lowest balcony a
          drop ladder fifteen inches in width and of sufficient
          length to reach to a safe landing place beneath. Such
          ladder shall be constructed, located and arranged so as
          to be held in proper position at all times and, unless
          properly counter-balanced, shall be placed in guides so
          that it can be easily lowered.

     b.   The distance from the lowest balcony to the ground or
          safe landing place beneath shall be not more than
          sixteen feet, except that the department may permit
          such lowest balcony to be up to eighteen feet above a
          public sidewalk because of structural conditions in any
          multiple dwelling erected before April eighteenth,
          nineteen hundred twenty-nine.

     c.   No drop ladder shall be required where the distance
          from the lowest balcony to a safe landing place beneath
          is five feet or less.

6.   The balcony on the top story shall be provided with a
     stairway or a gooseneck ladder from such balcony to and
     above the roof and securely fastened thereto, except that no
     such stairway or ladder shall be required:

     a.   On multiple dwellings two stories or less in height
          erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
          nine; or

     b.   Wherever there is a peak roof with a pitch in excess of
          twenty degrees;

     c.   When the fire-escape is on the front of the dwelling,
          in a recess on the front of the dwelling, or on an
          outer court opening to a street.

7.   Every fire-escape if constructed of material subject to
     rusting shall be painted with two or more coats of good
     paint in contrasting colors; in the case of a new fire-
     escape the first coat before erection, and the second coat
     after erection. Whenever a fire-escape becomes rusty, the
     owner shall repaint it with two additional coats of good
     paint.

8.   a.   Whenever a non-fireproof multiple dwelling is not
          provided with sufficient means of egress in case of
          fire, the department may order such additional fire-
          escapes or balconies as in its judgment may be deemed
          necessary.

     b.   The owner of a multiple dwelling shall keep and
          maintain every fire-escape thereon in good order and
          repair.

     c.   No person shall at any time place any encumbrance of
          any kind before or upon any fire-escape, or place or
          keep a cover of any kind over the stairway opening in a
          balcony of such fire-escape. An occupant or tenant of a
          multiple dwelling who shall violate or assist in the
          violation of the provisions of this paragraph shall be
          guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as provided in
          section three hundred four.

9.   No fire-escape shall be removed from or constructed on any
     existing multiple dwelling without permission from the
     department. No fire-escape shall be removed from any
     apartment without due precaution against leaving occupants
     of such apartment without adequate means of egress in case
     of fire. A wire, chain cable, vertical ladder or rope fire-
     escape is an unlawful means of egress. Every such fire-
     escape, if required as a means of egress, shall be removed
     and replaced by a system of fire-escapes constructed and
     arranged as provided in this section.

10.  The department shall have the power to make supplementary
     regulations relating to fire-escapes.


Sec. 54.  Cellar entrance.

There shall be a direct entrance to the cellar, or to the lowest
story if there be no cellar, from the outside of every multiple
dwelling erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
nine, except that in non-fireproof multiple dwellings erected
after such date which are three stories or less in height and
occupied by not more than two families on any story, any stair
leading to such cellar or lowest story may be located inside the
dwelling provided it is enclosed in fireproof walls and fireproof
doors and assemblies with the doors self-closing, at both the
level of such cellar or lowest story and that of the story above.
No such outside entrance existing in any multiple dwelling on
April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, shall be
obstructed.


Sec. 55.  Wainscoting.

1.   Whenever the surface of walls, partitions or ceilings in any
     apartment or suite of rooms of any non-fireproof multiple
     dwelling is covered, sheathed or wainscoted wholly or in
     part after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine,
     such covering shall be backed solidly with plaster. In
     fireproof multiple dwellings such covering shall be backed
     solidly and continuously or filled with incombustible
     material. In the case of walls and partitions in fireproof
     dwellings, such backing and filling shall extend to the
     fireproof floor construction and in non-fireproof dwellings
     to the floor beams. All such backing and filling shall be
     fire-stopped.

2.   No wood wainscoting other than fireproofed wood complying
     with the provisions of section fifty-eight shall be erected
     in any public hall, stair or shaft of any multiple dwelling.


Sec. 56.  Frame buildings and extensions.

1.   Except as provided in section one hundred ninety-three and
     subdivision seven of this section, no frame multiple
     dwelling shall be erected and no frame dwelling not used as
     a multiple dwelling on April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, shall be altered or converted to such use or
     occupancy.

2.   No existing frame multiple dwelling shall be increased in
     height nor shall it be altered to permit a greater occupancy
     on any story than provided for on April eighteenth, nineteen
     hundred twenty-nine; except that, if the walls of such a
     frame dwelling are faced with brick veneer or with another
     material or combination of materials having a fire resistive
     rating of at least one hour, and the entrance story thereof
     is occupied by not more than one family, such entrance story
     may be altered so that it may be occupied by not more than
     two families.

3.   No frame building of any kind whatsoever shall be placed or
     built upon the same lot with any multiple dwelling.

4.   No multiple dwelling shall be placed or built upon the same
     lot with any frame building.

5.   No frame multiple dwelling, no wooden structure of any kind
     or class on the same lot with any frame dwelling or with any
     multiple dwelling, and no other building on the same lot
     with any frame dwelling, shall be altered or converted so as
     to be enlarged, extended or increased in height or bulk or
     in the number of rooms, apartments or dwelling units
     therein; except that:

     a.   An extension seventy square feet or less in ground area
          the side walls of which are of frame and brick filled
          or of masonry construction may be added to any existing
          frame multiple dwelling if used solely for bathrooms or
          waterclosets; and

     b.   An extension constructed with fireproof walls may be
          made to a frame building if the first story of such
          extension is used solely for business not prohibited by
          any local law or ordinance, or if such extension
          contains not more than one living room on any story. No
          yard or court shall be diminished by such extension so
          that its area or least dimension is less than required
          by this chapter for a yard or court of a multiple
          dwelling erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
          hundred twenty-nine.

6.   None used as a store or other non-residential use to no more
     than one additional dwelling unit; provided, however, that:
     (a) such space has been vacant for at least one year, and
     (b) such space has a minimum of three hundred square feet of
     floor area, and (c) the conversion must be for a class "A"
     use, and (d) said unit shall contain a cooking space and a
     complete bathroom, and (e) all walls and ceilings of the new
     dwelling unit shall be fire-retarded with one hour rated
     fire-retarding materials, and (f) the height and bulk of the
     dwelling shall not be increased, and (g) the dwelling will
     be in full compliance with this chapter and other related
     and local ordinances, except that the owner of said dwelling
     shall be entitled to consideration for variances permitted
     in subdivision one and subparagraph five of paragraph a of
     subdivision two of section three hundred ten of this chapter
     for multiple dwellings and buildings existing prior to
     November first, nineteen hundred forty-nine.


Sec. 57.  Bells; mail receptacles.

1.   Whenever bells are installed at the entrance to any multiple
     dwelling or at any door of an individual apartment in a
     multiple dwelling, they shall be kept in good working order.

2.   Whenever the owner of a multiple dwelling has not arranged
     for mail to be delivered to occupants thereof by himself,
     his agent or employees, arrangements shall be made for the
     delivery of such mail in conformity with regulations of the
     post office department.


Sec. 58.  Incombustible materials.

Except as may be specifically provided otherwise in this chapter,
all required incombustible materials, including fireproofed wood,
shall be capable of withstanding successfully standard fire tests
as prescribed by the building code. In the absence of any such
prescribed requirements, the department shall have the power to
make supplementary regulations relative to standard fire tests
for incombustible materials.


Sec. 59.  Bakeries and fat boiling.

1.   It shall be unlawful to construct or maintain a bakery or a
     place of business where fat is boiled in any non-fireproof
     multiple dwelling or upon the lot on which such dwelling is
     situated, unless the ceiling, side walls and all exposed
     iron or wooden beams, girders and columns within the said
     bakery or business place where fat is boiled, are covered
     with fireproof materials.

2.   There shall be no door, window, dumbwaiter shaft or other
     opening between such a bakery or business place where fat is
     boiled and any other part of the dwelling, except that:

     a.   There may be access to the public parts of the dwelling
          from any bakery maintained therein if the product of
          such bakery is consumed exclusively within such
          dwelling.

     b.   In a fireproof hotel where a retail bakery is
          maintained therein, there may be access to the public
          parts of the hotel, provided the door openings leading
          thereto from such bakery and the door assemblies are
          fireproof with the doors self-closing, and provided the
          public parts of such bakery premises are protected by
          one or more sprinkler heads.

     c.   In bakeries in which no fat is boiled and on the
          premises of which there is no apparatus for fat
          boiling, a dumbwaiter communicating between the place
          where the baking is done and a bakery store above may
          be maintained if entirely enclosed in a brick shaft
          with walls eight inches or more in thickness, without
          any openings whatever except one door opening into the
          bakeshop and one into the bakery store. Every such
          opening shall be provided with a fireproof door and
          assembly so arranged that when one door is open, the
          other is entirely closed.

3.   Every part of a bakery, its plumbing, and the yards and open
     spaces adjoining shall be kept in good repair, in sanitary
     condition and free from rodents and vermin.


Sec. 60.  Motor vehicle storage.

A space may be provided and maintained in any multiple dwelling
or upon the premises thereof, or a structure may be erected and
maintained at the rear or side thereof, for the storage of
passenger motor vehicles but only with a written permit therefor
when required by local law and in accordance with every
applicable local law, ordinance, resolution, code provision or
regulation and with the following provisions:

1.   a.   It shall be unlawful to sell, store, handle or
          furnish gasoline, oil or other fuel, or any article,
          accessory or service except storage, or to construct or
          maintain repair or grease pits in any such space or
          structure. The provisions of this section shall not
          prevent the keeping of such gasoline, oil or other fuel
          as may be contained in the tank of any such motor
          vehicle, and the cleaning or washing of such motor
          vehicles.

     b.   Such space or structure shall be used solely for the
          storage of passenger motor vehicles of the occupants of
          the multiple dwelling or of multiple dwellings under
          common ownership, except that, in the event such space
          or structure or part thereof is not used by such
          occupants, it may be rented by the owner or owners of
          such dwelling or dwellings to persons other than the
          occupants thereof. The space which has thus been rented
          shall be made available to an occupant within thirty
          days after written request therefor. Except as
          otherwise provided in paragraph d herein transient
          parking for any period of less than one month by non-
          occupants is unlawful. However, such space may be used
          also for the storage of any type of mechanical or motor-
          driven equipment or other accessory device or passenger
          bus required for the proper maintenance of the site and
          of the dwellings thereon.

     c.   If any of the provisions contained in paragraphs a and
          b of this subdivision is violated, the department
          charged with the enforcement of this chapter or the
          fire department shall order and direct that no motor
          vehicle may be stored or kept in such space or
          structure thereafter for such period as either
          department shall determine, and thereupon the permit
          shall be suspended and no motor vehicle shall be stored
          or kept in such space or structure for such period.

     d.   A city may, by local law or ordinance, or the duly
          constituted planning or appeal board or commission of a
          city may by granting an approval, exception or
          variance, authorize transient parking for any period of
          less than one month of motor vehicles in dwellings by
          non-occupants in any space that is not let to an
          occupant pursuant to the other provisions of this
          section. Such city may require a license and impose a
          fee therefor, and adopt supplementary rules,
          regulations and conditions under which such parking
          shall be permitted.

2.   a.   Every such space or structure shall be designed
          and constructed to accommodate not more than two
          passenger motor vehicles for each family in such
          multiple dwelling.

     b.   Such space or structure shall have a floor area within
          its enclosing walls not greater than three hundred
          square feet per vehicle for each such family, including
          car parking spaces and aisles.

     c.   Every such storage space or structure shall be
          fireproof throughout, except that any extension of such
          storage space or structure beyond the exterior walls of
          a fireproof dwelling not exceeding one story in height
          and any separate structure on the same lot as a
          fireproof dwelling may be of uncombustible material
          with a fire-resistive rating of at least two hours, if
          such extension or separate structure complies with the
          provisions of paragraph e of this subdivision.

     d.   When constructed within a multiple dwelling such
          storage space shall be equipped with a sprinkler system
          and also with a system of mechanical ventilation in no
          way connected with any other ventilating system. Such
          storage space shall have no opening into any other part
          of the dwelling except through a fireproof vestibule.
          Any such vestibule shall have a minimum superficial
          floor area of fifty square feet and its maximum area
          shall not exceed seventy-five square feet. It shall be
          enclosed with incombustible partitions having a fire-
          resistive rating of three hours. The floor and ceiling
          of such vestibule shall also be of incombustible
          material having a fire-resistive rating of at least
          three hours. There shall be two doors to provide access
          from the dwelling to the car storage space. Each such
          door shall have a fire-resistive rating of one and one-
          half hours and shall be provided with a device to
          prevent the opening of one door until the other door is
          entirely closed. One of these doors shall swing into
          the vestibule from the dwelling and the other shall
          swing from the vestibule into the car storage space.
          The door from the vestibule to the dwelling shall be at
          least twenty feet distant in a non-fireproof dwelling
          or twelve feet in a fireproof dwelling from any stair
          enclosure, elevator shaft, or any opening to any other
          vertical shaft. Such vestibule shall also be equipped
          with sprinklers and with an exhaust duct having a
          minimum cross-sectional area of one hundred forty-four
          square inches and shall not be connected with any other
          ventilating system.

     e.   Such storage space may be extended beyond the exterior
          walls of a fireproof dwelling without any separating
          walls between its interior and exterior portion
          provided that such extension is roofed over and
          equipped with sprinklers throughout. Such extension
          shall be open to the outer air on at least two sides
          and in no event shall more than fifty percent of its
          vertical surface area be enclosed in any manner. Any
          such extension shall not be deemed to be a storage
          space within a multiple dwelling. Any enclosed sub-
          surface space beneath such an extension shall however,
          comply with all the provisions of this section
          applicable to storage space within a multiple dwelling.
          Any portion of such extension of storage space or of a
          separate structure for such storage purposes
          appurtenant to a multiple dwelling which face any
          dwelling within a distance of twenty feet therefrom or
          which is within thirty feet of any living room window
          of any dwelling shall be unpierced except for door
          openings for vehicles. A separate structure for such
          storage purposes appurtenant to a multiple dwelling may
          adjoin such dwelling provided that the part of the wall
          separating such space from the dwelling is fireproof
          and unpierced, except by a fireproof vestibule as
          provided in subdivision d. Such extension or separate
          structure shall be adequately screened at grade level.
          That part of the roof of an extension within thirty
          feet of any living room window of any dwelling shall
          not be used for parking or storage of motor vehicles or
          the ingress thereto or egress therefrom by motor
          vehicles.

     f.   Any such structure one story in height or any extension
          of a storage space within a multiple dwelling beyond
          the exterior wall of such dwelling where such extension
          is one story in height, shall not be deemed an
          encroachment upon a yard or its equivalent or a court.
          Any such structure or extension in excess of such
          height shall be deemed an encroachment thereupon.

     g.   In a completely enclosed storage structure or a storage
          space within a multiple dwelling except for vehicle
          entrance doors, all doors, windows and their assemblies
          in the exterior walls of any such space or structure
          accommodating more than five motor vehicles shall be
          fireproof and such windows shall be either fixed
          windows or automatic fire windows and glazed with wire
          glass. Any door or vehicle entrance to such space or
          structure accommodating more than five motor vehicles
          shall be at least twenty feet distant from any door
          giving access to any required entrance hall from
          outside of the dwelling and shall be at least eight
          feet distant from any other entrance or exit of such
          dwelling. However, in such space the windows in an
          exterior wall which faces the street may be of
          incombustible material and be glazed with plain glass,
          provided that such windows are thirty feet or more,
          measured in a horizontal direction, from any opening in
          the exterior wall of the dwelling.

     h.   Notwithstanding any other provision of this section
          when such storage space or structure is designed and
          constructed within or appurtenant to a converted
          dwelling to accommodate not more than three motor
          vehicles, (1) the ceiling and the enclosing walls may
          be of materials having a fire-resistive rating of not
          less than one hour and the floors shall be fireproof;
          (2) only one opening shall be permitted in the
          enclosure partition between the garage and the dwelling
          and such opening shall be protected by a fireproof door
          and assembly with the door self-closing; (3) a
          sprinkler system for such space shall not be required;
          and (4) in lieu of mechanical ventilation, such space
          may have fixed ventilation of not less than one hundred
          and forty-four square inches for each motor vehicle.

3.   The agency of a city authorized by law to make rules
     supplemental to laws regulating construction, maintenance,
     use and area of buildings and to grant variances of the
     zoning resolution shall have the power to make rules to
     supplement the requirements of this section and, after
     public hearing, may grant variances of local laws,
     resolutions, code provisions or regulations which are more
     restrictive than the provisions of this section, subject to
     such conditions as, in the opinion of such agency, will best
     promote health, safety and welfare and carry out the
     permissive intent of this section. All owners of property
     within a radius of one hundred fifty feet of the entrance or
     entrance passage to such space or structure shall be duly
     notified of any such public hearing and shall be given due
     opportunity to be heard thereon. Nothing in this section
     shall be deemed to prohibit the use of a part of such lot or
     plot as a parking area for the exclusive use of the
     occupants of such dwelling.

4.   No parking area or space to be used for the storage of motor
     vehicles upon the premises of a multiple dwelling shall
     encroach upon any part of the lot or plot which is required
     by any provision of this chapter to be left open and
     unoccupied.

5.   None of the provisions of this section shall be construed as
     permitting such space or structure or part thereof to be
     rented or leased for the storage or warehousing of passenger
     or commercial type of motor vehicles, which are part of
     stock of any person, firm or corporation engaged in the
     purchase, sale or rental of such motor vehicles.


Sec. 61.  Business uses.

1.   Except as may be otherwise provided by any local law,
     ordinance, rule or regulation, business may be conducted in
     any multiple dwelling including:

     a.   Baking and fat-boiling as provided in section fifty-
          nine,

     b.   Storage of passenger motor vehicles as provided in
          section sixty, and

     c.   Any manufacturing business in which seven or more
          persons are employed, or any employment agency as
          defined in section one hundred seventy-one of the
          general business law other than a non-profit employment
          agency in a fireproof class B multiple dwelling owned
          and occupied by a non-profit corporation organized for
          and engaged exclusively in promoting religious,
          education or philanthropic purposes, provided that
          every means of egress from such a business space shall
          be separate and distinct from and without means of
          communication with any means of egress from the
          dwelling portion of the building.

2.   The number of means of egress from the portion of any
     multiple dwelling where business is conducted shall be in
     conformity with those provisions of the local laws,
     ordinances, rules and regulations covering means of egress
     from buildings in which a like business is conducted.

3.   There shall be no manufacturing business conducted above the
     second floor of any non-fireproof multiple dwelling.

4.   Where business is conducted in any multiple dwelling erected
     before April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, such
     business space shall also comply with all the following
     requirements in a manner which the department shall deem
     adequate to prevent the spread of fire:

     a.   Within or appurtenant to such space, all pipe chases
          and openings around flues shall be fire-stopped, and
          such flues shall be kept in good order and repair.

     b.   All other openings from such space into non-fireproof
          shafts or into entrance halls shall either be sealed
          with fire-retarded material or equipped with a self-
          closing fire-retarded door or window with fire-retarded
          assemblies.

5.   Where business is conducted in any non-fireproof multiple
     dwelling erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, the walls and ceiling of such business space
     shall be fire-retarded. The department may also require the
     walls and ceilings of any business space in any multiple
     dwelling erected before such date to be fire-retarded when
     the department shall deem such requirement necessary for the
     protection of the occupants.

6.   If the ground story of any non-fireproof multiple dwelling
     is extended for business purposes, the underside of the roof
     of such extension shall be fire-retarded. If there are fire-
     escapes above such extension, its roof shall be fireproof.


Sec. 62.  Parapets, guard railings and wires.

1.   Every open area of a roof, terrace, areaway, outside stair,
     stair landing, retaining wall or porch and every stair
     window of a multiple dwelling erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, shall be protected
     in a manner approved by the department by a parapet wall or
     a guard railing three feet six inches or more in height
     above the level of such area, or, in the case of a stair
     window, above the level of the floor adjacent thereto,
     unless the department shall deem that such protection is not
     necessary for safety. In any multiple dwelling where a
     bulkhead door or scuttle cover opens within four feet of the
     edge of the roof, that part of the roof which is immediately
     adjacent to such door or cover shall be adequately
     protected. Such protection shall consist of guard rails or
     parapet walls extending at least three feet six inches above
     the level of the roof, and shall be arranged and placed in a
     manner approved by the department, but shall not be required
     for such bulkhead door or scuttle cover when the bulkhead or
     scuttle on such dwelling is immediately adjacent to, and
     also on the same level as or on a lower level than, the roof
     of a contiguous building. This subdivision shall not apply
     to the open area of a roof of a garden-type maisonette
     dwelling project.

2.   All radio, antennae or other wires over any roof shall,
     unless otherwise permitted by the department, be kept ten
     feet or more above such roof, and no radio, television
     antennae or other wires shall be attached to any fire escape
     or to any soil or vent line extending above the roof.


Sec. 63.  Sub-curb uses.

1.   When any living room is below the level of the highest curb
     in front of any multiple dwelling erected after April
     eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, in accordance with
     the provisions of paragraph f of subdivision one of section
     thirty-four, all portions of such dwelling below such level
     shall be fireproof throughout except that windows therein
     need not be fireproof but shall be of incombustible material
     and may be glazed with plain glass.

2.   Except in multiple dwellings which do not exceed eighty feet
     in height measured from the lowest point of any curb on
     which any part of the dwelling faces, at least one means of
     egress from any apartment or suite of rooms below the level
     of the highest curb in front of such a dwelling shall lead
     directly to the street in front of said dwelling and at
     least one such means to the yard or street in the rear of
     said dwelling. Every yard in the rear of every such multiple
     dwelling, regardless of the height of such dwelling, shall
     at the lowest level of such yard be provided with a fire
     passage in compliance with the requirements for such a
     passage in paragraph f of subdivision five of section twenty-
     six.

3.   Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section the
     department may require such additional means of egress from
     the said dwelling or protection from fire as the department
     may deem necessary for the safety of the occupants.


Sec. 64.  Lighting; gas meters; gas and oil appliances.

1.   Every multiple dwelling after July first, nineteen hundred
     fifty-five, shall be adequately equipped throughout all
     stories and cellars for lighting by gas or electricity, with
     proper fixtures at every light outlet, including lighting
     for all means of egress leading to the street, yards or
     courts, and for every room, water-closet compartment,
     bathroom, stair or public hall.

2.   No gas meter, other than a replacement meter, installed in a
     multiple dwelling after July first, nineteen hundred fifty-
     five, shall be located in any boiler room or other room or
     space containing a heating boiler, nor in any stair hall,
     nor in any public hall above the cellar or above the lowest
     story if there is no cellar, except that in any multiple
     dwelling where there is an existing gas meter located in any
     boiler room or other room or space containing a heating
     boiler, one additional gas meter may be installed in such
     room or space, provided such additional gas meter is
     installed adjacent to such existing gas meter and is used in
     conjunction with the supply of gas for a gas-fired heating
     boiler or a gas-fired water heater used as a central source
     of supply of heat or hot water for the tenants residing in
     such multiple dwelling. Such additional gas meter may be
     installed only upon condition that space heaters or hot
     water appliances in the apartments are eliminated. For the
     purposes of this subdivision, the term "gas meter" shall not
     include any instrument, device or apparatus used to measure
     the consumption of gas where no gas, manufactured, natural
     or mixed, is contained in or flows through such instrument,
     device or apparatus, provided that such instrument, device
     or apparatus is approved by and installed under the
     supervision of the city agency vested by law with
     jurisdiction to inspect and test wiring and appliances for
     electric light, heat and power and provided further that the
     location of such instrument, device or apparatus is approved
     by the department.

3.   It shall be unlawful to place, use, or to maintain in a
     condition intended, arranged or designed for use, any gas-
     fired cooking appliance, laundry stove, heating stove, range
     or water heater or combination of such appliances in any
     room or space used for living or sleeping in any new or
     existing multiple dwelling unless such room or space has a
     window opening to the outer air or such gas appliance is
     vented to the outer air. All automatically operated gas
     appliances shall be equipped with a device which shall shut
     off automatically the gas supply to the main burners when
     the pilot light in such appliance is extinguished. A gas
     range or the cooking portion of a gas appliance
     incorporating a room heater shall not be deemed an
     automatically operated gas appliance. However, burners in
     gas ovens and broilers which can be turned on and off or
     ignited by non-manual means shall be equipped with a device
     which shall shut off automatically the gas supply to those
     burners when the operation of such non-manual means fails.
     All gas appliances shall be connected directly to the gas
     supply by means of rigid piping or other approved connectors
     or connections of incombustible materials. All such
     automatically operated gas appliances and devices shall be
     approved by the local agency empowered to grant the same.

4.   It shall be unlawful to use, or to maintain in a condition
     intended, arranged or designed for use, in any multiple
     dwelling any oil-burning equipment for heating or cooking,
     unless such equipment has been approved for design,
     manufacture and appropriate safety and ventilating
     requirements by the local board of standards and appeals;
     provided, however, that in a city having a population of one
     million or more, approval of such equipment for use in any
     multiple dwelling shall be made by the commissioner of
     buildings or the fire commissioner, as appropriate, in
     accordance with local law.

5.   All appliances in use after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred
     fifty-five, shall conform to the provisions of subdivisions
     three and four of this section except that appliances now in
     use shall conform to such provisions not later than June
     thirtieth, nineteen hundred fifty-six.


Sec. 65.  Boiler rooms.

1.   Except as hereafter provided, in every multiple dwelling
     erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
     nine, which is four stories or more in height the boiler
     shall be enclosed in a room or space constructed with
     fireproof walls extending from the floor construction to the
     ceiling construction, and all openings therefrom to other
     portions of the dwelling shall be equipped with fireproof
     doors and assemblies with the doors self-closing. However,
     in all multiple dwellings, on and after January first,
     nineteen hundred sixty-six, a room or space provided with a
     central heating plant shall be completely enclosed with
     incombustible materials having a standard fire-resistive
     rating of at least one hour.

2.   In such a dwelling access to a cellar or lowest story in
     which a boiler is located shall not be through any boiler
     room, nor shall any cellar or basement stair or any shaft be
     installed within a boiler room.

3.   The department shall have the power to make supplementary
     regulations relating to boiler or furnace rooms.


Sec. 66.  Lodging houses.

1.   It shall be unlawful to occupy any lodging house unless such
     dwelling conforms to the provisions of the specific sections
     enumerated in section twenty-five to the extent required
     therein, including the provisions of this section, and to
     all other applicable provisions of this chapter.

2.   a.   No wood or other combustible facing shall be
          permitted on the walls, partitions or ceilings of
          entrance halls or other public halls or stairs, except
          a flat baseboard ten inches or less in height. The
          stair string, handrails, soffits, fascias, railings,
          balustrades and newel posts shall be constructed of
          hard incombustible material and shall be of such sizes
          and secured in such manner as approved by the
          department.

     b.   The walls and ceilings of all entrance halls, stair
          halls and other public halls and stairs shall be fire-
          retarded on the hall or stair side with half-inch
          plaster board covered with twenty-six gauge metal or
          other materials approved by the department.

     c.   Except partitions forming existing cubicles, flat
          baseboards not more than ten inches high and door and
          window assemblies not otherwise required to be fire-
          retarded, all wood partitions and all combustible
          coverings on walls or partitions throughout the portion
          of the dwelling used for lodging-house purposes shall
          be protected with incombustible material approved by
          the department.

     d.   The cellar ceiling and the ceiling of every story shall
          be fire-retarded. The department may accept an existing
          ceiling if it is in good condition and plastered, or
          covered with metal or with half-inch plaster board
          covered with metal, or other materials approved by the
          department, except that the ceiling over and the floor
          beneath any furnace, stove, boiler or hot-water heater
          shall be fire-retarded and such fire-retarding shall
          extend for a distance of at least four feet beyond the
          sides and rear and eight feet in front of such furnace,
          stove or heater. Metal breechings and flues connected
          to such devices shall be made secure and be protected
          in conformity with regulations adopted by the
          department.

     e.   Every window not opening to the outer air in an
          entrance, stair or other public hall shall be removed,
          and the opening closed and fire-retarded, except that
          interior windows or similar openings in partitions
          forming the enclosure of entrance, stair or other
          public halls may be retained if they are used in the
          operation and maintenance of the lodging house and are
          protected by automatic fire windows.

     f.   There shall be one or more completely enclosed
          compartments remote from any stairway for the storage
          of mattresses, linens, brooms, mops and other
          paraphernalia incidental to the occupancy and
          maintenance of the lodging house, and such
          paraphernalia shall be stored in no other portion of
          such dwelling. The partitions forming each such
          compartment shall be fire-retarded and shall be
          provided with a fireproof door and door assembly with
          the door self-closing. Each such compartment shall be
          ventilated in accordance with regulations adopted by
          the department. Any space which is used for the storage
          of mattresses, in addition to conforming to the other
          provisions of this section, shall be provided with a
          window ten square feet or more in area, and such window
          shall open upon a street or yard.

     g.   There shall be provided on each lodging-house story one
          or more containers of metal or other hard incombustible
          material, with self-closing lids, in which all scrap
          and refuse of a combustible nature shall be placed
          until its disposal.

     h.   Insecticides and other fluids containing inflammable,
          volatile or combustible material shall be stored in a
          completely enclosed fire-retarded room or compartment,
          ventilated in accordance with regulations adopted by
          the department, and only under authority of a permit
          from the fire department.

3.   a.   In non-fireproof lodging houses there shall be in
          all dormitories, entrance and other public halls,
          stairs, storage rooms, cellars and other parts of the
          dwelling an automatic wet-pipe sprinkler system,
          installed and maintained in conformity with regulations
          adopted by the department. In connection with such
          sprinkler system there shall be an automatic closed-
          circuit alarm system so arranged and installed as to
          give warning, at a recognized central station
          satisfactory to the fire department, of the closure of
          any valve controlling water supply to any of the
          sprinklers and of the operation of any sprinkler head.
          Such alarm system shall also be so installed and
          maintained that when a sprinkler operates an alarm bell
          satisfactory to the fire department, eight inches in
          diameter or at least capable of being heard clearly
          throughout the room, will sound in each dormitory and
          in the office of the lodging house, and that such alarm
          system can also be operated manually. Such sprinkler
          and alarm systems shall have supervisory and
          maintenance service satisfactory to the department and
          the fire department respectively. Any existing fire
          alarm or sprinkler system which can be altered or
          adapted to meet the requirements of this paragraph may
          be so used instead of a completely new system.

     b.   In fireproof lodging houses all dormitories, entrance
          and other public halls, stairs, storage rooms, cellars
          and other parts of the dwelling shall either be
          equipped with a combined sprinkler and fire alarm
          system as required for the lodging houses provided for
          in paragraph a or be equipped throughout with an
          automatic, thermostatic, closed-circuit fire alarm
          system. Such alarm system shall be so arranged and
          installed that it can also be operated manually and
          that it will give warning, at a recognized central
          station satisfactory to the fire department, of the
          operation of any part of the alarm system. Such alarm
          system shall also be so installed and maintained as to
          actuate an alarm bell satisfactory to the fire
          department and at least eight inches in diameter in
          each dormitory in the dwelling and in the lodging-house
          office when the alarm system operates. Such alarm
          system shall have supervisory and maintenance service
          satisfactory to the fire department.

4.   a.   There shall be at least two means of unobstructed
          egress from each lodging-house story, which shall be
          remote from each other. The first means of egress shall
          be to a street either directly or by an enclosed stair
          having unobstructed, direct access thereto. If the
          story is above the entrance story, the second means of
          egress shall be by an outside fire-escape constructed
          in accordance with the provisions of section fifty-
          three or by an additional enclosed stair. Such second
          means of egress shall be accessible without passing
          through the first means of egress.

     b.   All doors opening upon entrance halls, stair halls,
          other public halls or stairs or elevator, dumbwaiter or
          other shafts, and the door assemblies, shall be
          fireproof with the doors made self-closing by a device
          approved by the department, and such doors shall not be
          held open by any device whatever. All openings on the
          course of a fire-escape shall be provided with such
          doors and assemblies or with fireproof windows and
          assemblies, with the windows self-closing and glazed
          with wire glass, such doors or windows and their
          assemblies to be acceptable to the department.

     c.   There shall be unobstructed aisles providing access to
          all required means of egress in all dormitories. Main
          aisles, approved as such by the department to provide
          adequate approaches to the required means of egress,
          shall be three feet or more in width, except that no
          aisle need be more than two feet six inches wide if it
          is intersected at intervals of not more than fifty feet
          by crossover aisles at least three feet wide leading to
          other aisles or to an approved means of egress.

     d.   Every required means of egress from the lodging-house
          part of the dwelling shall be indicated by a sign
          reading "EXIT" in red letters at least eight inches
          high on a white background illuminated at all times
          during the day and night by a light of at least twenty-
          five watts or equivalent illumination. Such light shall
          be maintained in a keyless socket.  On all lodging-
          house stories where doors, openings, passageways or
          aisles are not visible from all portions of such
          stories, and in other parts of the dwelling which may
          be used in entering or leaving the lodging-house part
          and in which a similar need exists, signs with easily
          readable letters as least eight inches in height, and
          continuously and sufficiently illuminated by artificial
          light at all times when the natural light is not
          sufficient to make them easily readable, shall be
          maintained in conspicuous locations, indicating the
          direction of travel to the nearest means of egress. At
          least one such sign shall be easily visible from the
          doorway of each cubicle.

     e.   Access from the public hall at the top story to the
          roof shall be provided by means of a bulkhead or a
          scuttle acceptable to the department. Every such
          scuttle and the stair or ladder leading thereto shall
          be located within the stair enclosure.

5.   The number of persons accommodated on any story in a lodging
     house shall not be greater than the sum of the following
     components.

     a.   Twenty-two persons for each full multiple of twenty-two
          inches in the smallest clear width of each means of
          egress approved by the department, other than a fire-
          escape.

     b.   Twenty persons for each lawful fire-escape accessible
          from such story if it is above the entrance story.

6.   Existing cubicles complying with all other provisions of
     this section may be maintained, provided the top of the
     enclosure of every cubicle is at least two feet from the
     ceiling. Any rearrangement of existing cubicles that may be
     made necessary by the provisions of this section shall be
     lawful. Cubicles authorized by this section shall not be
     considered rooms or alcoves but parts of the rooms in which
     they are constructed.

7.   The department shall cause all lodging houses to be
     inspected at intervals of three months or less. All sections
     and parts of every lodging house shall also be inspected by
     a clerk or watchman in the employ of the owner at least once
     in every two hours.

8.   a.   The department shall have power to make
          supplementary regulations relating to fire-escapes,
          protection from fire, and the installation of sprinkler
          systems in lodging houses and the fire department shall
          have power to make such regulations relating to fire
          alarms therein.

     b.   Nothing in this section shall be deemed to abrogate any
          powers or duties vested in the fire commissioner or the
          fire department of the city of New York by chapter
          nineteen of the administrative code of the said city.


Sec. 67.  Hotels and certain other class A and class B dwellings.

1.   It shall be unlawful to occupy any class A or class B
     multiple dwelling, including a hotel, unless it conforms to
     the provisions of the specific sections enumerated in
     section twenty-five to the extent required therein,
     including the applicable provisions of this section and all
     other applicable provisions of this chapter except that the
     provisions of this section shall not apply to:

     a.   Converted dwellings;

     b.   Tenements;

     c.   Lodging houses;

     d.   Class A multiple dwellings erected under plans filed
          with the department after April eighteenth, nineteen
          hundred twenty-nine.

2.   Any such multiple dwelling, altered or erected after April
     fifth, nineteen hundred forty-four, and which is required to
     conform to the provisions of articles one, two, three, four,
     five, eight, nine and eleven, shall not be required to
     conform to the provisions of subdivisions three, six, nine
     and ten of this section.

3.   The walls and ceiling of every entrance hall, stair hall or
     other public hall, every hall or passage not within an
     apartment or suite of rooms, every dumb-waiter, elevator,
     and, except as provided in paragraph d of subdivision six,
     every other shaft, including stairs, connecting more than
     two successive stories, shall be sealed off from every other
     portion of the dwelling with fire-retarding materials
     approved by the department, or, in lieu thereof, except in
     the case of elevator shafts, shall be equipped with one or
     more automatic sprinkler heads. Nothing contained herein
     shall be deemed to exempt from enclosure an interior
     required means of egress. The provisions of this subdivision
     and similar requirements of section sixty-one shall not
     apply to a store or space used for business on any story
     where there are no sleeping rooms, when such store or space
     is protected with sprinkler heads.

4.   There shall be one or more completely enclosed compartments
     for the storage of mattresses, furniture, paints, floor wax,
     linens, brooms, mops and other such inflammable or
     combustible paraphernalia incidental to the occupancy and
     maintenance of the dwelling, and such paraphernalia shall be
     stored in no other portion of such dwelling. Such
     compartments shall be completely protected by one or more
     automatic sprinkler heads. Every door from any such
     compartment shall be self-closing. Closets which do not
     exceed one hundred square feet in floor area may be used for
     the temporary storage of such paraphernalia, except
     mattresses, furniture, paints and insecticides containing
     inflammable materials and are excluded from the requirements
     of this subdivision.

5.   All kitchens and pantries serving restaurants in such non-
     fireproof dwellings shall be equipped with one or more
     automatic sprinkler heads.

6.   Except in fireproof class A multiple dwellings erected under
     plans filed after January first, nineteen hundred twenty-
     five, and which were completed before December thirty-one,
     nineteen hundred thirty-three, and except as otherwise
     provided in paragraph c of this subdivision, in every such
     dwelling three or more stories in height there shall be from
     each story at least two independent means of unobstructed
     egress located remote from each other and accessible to each
     room, apartment or suite.

     a.   The first means of egress shall be an enclosed stair
          extending directly to a street, or to a yard, court or
          passageway affording continuous, safe and unobstructed
          access to a street, or by an enclosed stair leading to
          the entrance story, which story shall have direct
          access to a street. That area of the dwelling
          immediately above the street level and commonly known
          as the main floor, where the occupants are registered
          and the usual business of the dwelling is conducted,
          shall be considered a part of the entrance story; and a
          required stair terminating at such main floor or its
          mezzanine shall be deemed to terminate at the entrance
          story. An elevator or an unenclosed escalator shall
          never be accepted as a required means of egress.

     b.   The second means of egress shall be by an additional
          enclosed stair conforming to the provisions of
          paragraph a of this subdivision, a fire-stair, a fire-
          tower or an outside fire-escape. In a non-fireproof
          dwelling when it is necessary to pass through a stair
          enclosure which may or may not be a required means of
          egress to reach a required means of egress, such stair
          enclosure and that part of the public hall or corridor
          leading thereto from a room, apartment or suite, shall
          be protected by one or more sprinkler heads; in a
          fireproof dwelling only that part of the hall or
          corridor leading to such stair enclosure need be so
          protected.

     c.   Where it is impractical in such existing dwellings to
          provide a second means of egress, the department may
          order additional alteration to the first means of
          egress and to shafts, stairs and other vertical
          openings as the department may deem necessary to
          safeguard the occupants of the dwelling, may require
          the public halls providing access to the first means of
          egress to be equipped on each story with one or more
          automatic sprinkler heads, and, in non-fireproof
          dwellings, may also require automatic sprinkler heads
          in the stair which serves as the only means of egress.

     d.   Nothing in this section shall be deemed to require the
          enclosure of a stair which is ornamental provided such
          stair does not connect more than two stories.

     e.   A stair, fire-stair, fire-tower or fire-escape which is
          supplementary to the egress requirements of paragraphs
          a, b and c of this subdivision need not lead to the
          entrance story or to a street, or to a yard or a court
          which leads to a street, provided the means of egress
          therefrom is approved by the department.

7.   a.   All doors opening from shafts, stair halls or
          stairs and the door assemblies shall be fire-resistive
          with the doors self-closing and without transoms or any
          other opening.

     b.   All other doors opening upon entrance halls or other
          public halls or corridors in every part of the dwelling
          shall be self-closing. In non-fireproof dwellings any
          existing openings in such doors, except in doors to
          public toilet rooms or bathrooms, shall be closed and
          sealed in such manner as to provide a fire-resistive
          rating equal to the fire-resistive rating of the
          remainder of the door. Except as provided in this
          paragraph, any existing transoms over such doors in
          such non-fireproof dwellings shall be firmly secured in
          a closed position, or removed and the openings closed,
          in a manner satisfactory to the department. If such
          doors or transoms are glazed with plain glass, such
          glass shall be removed and replaced with wire glass one-
          quarter of an inch in thickness or replaced with
          material approved by the department. In non-fireproof
          dwellings existing transoms or ventilating louvres in
          public halls or corridors, and any openings in
          partitions separating sleeping rooms from public halls
          or corridors to provide ventilation, need not be
          replaced, closed or sealed provided such public halls
          or corridors are protected by automatic sprinkler
          heads. When existing ventilating louvres are located in
          the lower half of any such door they may be retained
          and new ventilating louvres may be installed in the
          lower half of any new or existing doors provided the
          openable area of every such louvre does not exceed one
          hundred forty-four square inches and the bottom of the
          opening is one foot or more above the finished floor of
          the public hall or corridor upon which such door opens
          and, in such case, no sprinkler system shall be
          required.

     c.   Every existing interior glazed sash, window or opening,
          other than a door, in any partition forming required
          enclosures around stairs or shafts shall be removed and
          the openings closed up and fire-retarded. Where an
          existing sash provides borrowed light to a public hall
          or corridor from a living room and there is no glass
          panel in the door providing access to such room, such
          sash shall be made stationary in a closed position and
          be glazed with wire glass one-quarter inch in
          thickness, or be entirely removed and the opening
          closed up with incombustible material.

     d.   All openings which provide direct access to a fire-
          escape from a public hall or corridor shall be equipped
          with fireproof doors and assemblies with the door self-
          closing or fireproof windows glazed with clear wire
          glass. Doors providing access to fire-escapes from
          public halls or corridors may be glazed with clear wire
          glass.

     e.   It shall be unlawful to attach to or maintain on or
          about any door required to be self-closing any device
          which prevents the self-closing of such door.

8.   a.   (i)  Every means of egress shall be indicated by a
          sign reading "EXIT" in red letters at least eight
          inches high on a white background, or vice versa,
          illuminated at all times during the day and night by a
          red light of at least twenty-five watts or equivalent
          illumination. Such light shall be maintained in a
          keyless socket. On all stories where doors, openings or
          passageways giving access to any means of egress are
          not visible from all portions of such stories, lighted
          or reflective directional signs shall be maintained in
          conspicuous locations, indicating in red on a white
          background, or vice versa, the direction of travel to
          the nearest means of egress. In addition to being
          posted in conspicuous locations, such signs located
          near the floor, giving direction to the nearest means
          of egress, shall also be maintained. At least one sign
          shall be visible from the doorway of each room or suite
          of rooms. Existing signs and illumination may be
          accepted if, in the opinion of the department, such
          existing signs and illumination serve the intent and
          purpose of this subdivision. Supplementary stairs, fire-
          stairs, fire-towers or fire-escapes which do not lead
          to the entrance story or to a street or to a yard or
          court, leading to a street, shall be clearly marked
          "NOT AN EXIT" in black letters at least four inches
          high on a yellow background and at the termination of
          each such stair, fire-stair, fire-tower or fire-escape,
          there shall be a directional sign indicating the
          nearest means of egress leading to a street. All signs
          shall be constructed, located and illuminated in a
          manner satisfactory to the department.

     b.   On each floor of every hotel or motel having two or
          more stories where the rooms or suites of rooms are
          connected by an interior hallway, there shall be posted
          by each stairway, elevator or other means of egress a
          printed scale floor plan of the particular story, which
          shall show all means of egress, clearly labeling those
          to be used in case of fire. Such signs shall be posted
          in other conspicuous areas throughout the building.
          Said floor plan shall be no smaller than eight inches
          by ten inches and shall be posted in such a manner that
          it cannot be readily removed.

9.   The ceiling of the story immediately below the entrance
     story shall be fire-retarded or be equipped with one or more
     sprinkler heads. Any boiler or furnace room within the
     dwelling used in connection with supplying heat or hot water
     shall be enclosed with fire-retarded partitions and every
     door opening therefrom and its assembly shall be fireproof
     with the door self-closing. The ceiling of such room shall
     also be fire-retarded or be equipped with one or more
     sprinkler heads.

10.  a.   There shall be provided in the roof directly over
          each stair, fire-stair, fire-tower, dumb-waiter,
          elevator or similar shaft which extends to or within
          one story of a roof, a ventilating metal skylight
          having horizontal dimensions equal at least to seventy-
          five per centum of the cross-sectional area of such
          shaft. Such skylight need not, however, exceed twenty
          square feet in area. Where an existing skylight is
          smaller than the dimensions or area prescribed in this
          paragraph, no structural change shall be required, but
          a ventilating metal skylight fitting the existing
          opening in the roof shall be sufficient. Every skylight
          shall be glazed with plain glass in the roof of such
          skylight and shall be equipped with metal screens over
          and under the skylight. In lieu of a skylight a window
          of the same area at the top story shall be accepted.

     b.   Whenever there is a flooring of solid construction at
          the top of any enclosed stair, fire-stair, fire-tower,
          elevator or similar shaft, openings shall be left near
          the top of such shaft for ventilation. Such openings
          shall provide at least two hundred eighty-eight square
          inches of unobstructed ventilation and shall
          communicate directly with the outer air, or be
          otherwise ventilated in accordance with the provisions
          of the local building code.

     c.   It shall be unlawful to discharge into any such shaft
          any inflammable or volatile gases, liquids or other
          thing or matter which would endanger life.

11.  a.   There shall be a fire-retarded bulkhead in the
          roof over, or connecting directly by means of a public
          hall with the highest portion of, every stair extending
          to the highest story below the main roof. Stairs
          leading to such bulkheads shall be fire-retarded as
          required for other public stairs and shall have at the
          top fireproof doors and assemblies with the doors self-
          closing. All stairs to required bulkheads shall be
          provided with a guide or handrail. A scuttle so
          constructed as to be readily opened may be substituted
          for a bulkhead in such dwellings two stories or less in
          height. Such scuttle shall be at least twenty-one
          inches in width and twenty-eight inches in length,
          covered on the outside with metal and provided with a
          stationary iron or steel ladder leading thereto.

     b.   When a dwelling has a pitched or sloping roof with a
          pitch or slope of more than fifteen degrees, no
          bulkhead or scuttle, or stair or ladder leading thereto
          shall be required.

     c.   A bulkhead door or scuttle shall never be self-locking
          and shall be fastened on the inside with movable
          rustproof bolts, hooks, or a lock which does not
          require a key to open from the inside of the dwelling.

     d.   Bulkheads and stairs leading thereto existing on April
          fifth, nineteen hundred forty-four, shall be permitted
          provided the stairs have such angle of ascent and
          treads of such dimensions as may be approved by the
          department.

12.  In every such dwelling containing thirty or more rooms used
     for living or sleeping purposes by transient occupants there
     shall be a closed-circuit interior fire alarm system. Such
     alarm system shall be so installed and maintained that it
     can be operated manually from any story to sound an alarm or
     alarms capable of being heard clearly in all parts of the
     dwelling. Such alarm system shall be installed, arranged and
     maintained in a manner satisfactory to the fire department.

13.  When the local building code requires a standpipe system
     such system shall comply with all of the applicable
     requirements of such code.

14.  In every such fireproof dwelling containing fifty or more
     rooms used for living or sleeping purposes by transient
     occupants and in every such non-fireproof dwelling
     containing thirty or more such rooms, the owner shall employ
     one or more watchmen or clerks whose duty it shall be to
     visit every portion of the dwelling at frequent regular
     intervals for the purpose of detecting fire or other sources
     of danger and giving immediate and timely warning thereof to
     all the occupants. There shall be provided a watchman's
     clock system or other device to record the movements of such
     watchman. Such system shall be installed, supervised and
     maintained in a manner satisfactory to the fire department.
     However, the provisions of this subdivision shall not apply
     where, throughout the dwelling, a closed-circuit, automatic,
     thermostatic fire-detecting system is installed which
     actuates a fire alarm, or where, throughout the dwelling, an
     approved-type automatic sprinkler system is installed which
     actuates a fire alarm by the flow of water through such
     system.

15.  a.   Nothing in this section shall be construed as
          permitting partitions or materials which are not
          fireproof in any fireproof dwelling; nor shall anything
          in this section be deemed to abrogate any powers or
          duties vested by law in the fire commissioner or fire
          department, except that an existing sprinkler
          installation, fire alarm or standpipe system which has
          been approved or accepted by the department having
          jurisdiction and installed before July first, nineteen
          hundred forty-eight, shall, after inspection by the
          said department, be deemed to be in compliance with the
          requirements of this section or may be altered or
          adapted to meet such requirements instead of a
          completely new installation or system.

b.   All automatic sprinkler heads required by this section shall
     be constructed to fuse at a temperature not higher than one
     hundred sixty-five degrees Fahrenheit, spaced so as to
     protect the area which is required to be sprinklered, and
     installed, arranged and maintained in conformity with
     regulations adopted by the department.

c.   For the purposes of subdivisions twelve and fourteen of this
     section, the term "transient occupancy" shall mean the
     occupancy of a room for living purposes by the same person
     or persons for a period of ninety days or less.


Sec. 68.  Smoke detecting devices.

1.   This section shall apply to all multiple dwellings, whenever
     constructed, provided however, that for the purposes of this
     section the term "multiple dwelling" shall also include any
     dwelling accommodation used as a temporary or permanent
     residence located in any building owned as a condominium or
     cooperative.

2.   (a)  The owner of every multiple dwelling to which the
          provisions of this section apply shall equip each
          apartment or other separate living unit in such
          multiple dwelling with approved and operational smoke
          detecting devices in conformity with the state fire
          prevention and building code; provided, however, that
          any multiple dwelling not subject to the provisions of
          such code may, in the alternative, be equipped with
          battery-operated smoke detecting devices of a type
          accepted by the division of housing and community
          renewal.

     (b)  In hotels and other class B multiple dwellings, and in
          any portion of a class A multiple dwelling used for
          single room occupancy, at least one smoke detecting
          device shall be located within each room used for
          sleeping purposes. In any other multiple dwelling or
          portion thereof, there shall be at least one smoke
          detecting device located within each apartment or
          separate living unit, in an area so that it is clearly
          audible in each bedroom or other room used for sleeping
          purposes, with intervening doors closed; provided,
          however, that no smoke detecting device be located more
          than ten feet from the entrance to any bedroom or other
          room used for sleeping purposes.

     (c)  Each smoke detecting device shall include a test device
          to permit the occupant to readily determine if it is
          operational.

     (d)  In addition to complying with the provisions of this
          section, the type, location, number, and manner of
          installation of smoke detecting devices shall be in
          accordance with standards prescribed by the state fire
          prevention and building code council.

3.   (a)  With respect to class A multiple dwellings, other
          than any portion of any such dwelling used for single
          room occupancy, and notwithstanding the provisions of
          section seventy-eight or any other provision of this
          chapter, or of any law or requirement, state or local,
          the duties of the owner and tenant with respect to
          smoke detecting devices installed pursuant to this
          section shall be as provided in subdivisions four and
          five of this section.

     (b)  With respect to a class B multiple dwelling, or any
          portion of a class A multiple dwelling used for single
          room occupancy, the provisions of subdivision five of
          this section shall not apply, and smoke detecting
          devices installed as required by this section shall be
          subject to the provisions of section seventy-eight of
          this chapter.

     (c)  The owner of every multiple dwelling shall keep such
          records as the state fire prevention and building code
          council shall prescribe relating to the installation
          and maintenance of smoke detecting devices in the
          building and make such records available to any local
          code enforcement official on request.

4.   In addition to initially providing and installing the smoke
     detecting devices, the owner shall:

     (a)  replace within thirty days after the receipt of written
          notice any such device which becomes inoperable within
          one year of the installation of such device due to a
          defect in the manufacture of such device and through no
          fault of the occupant of the apartment or other unit;

     (b)  upon the occurrence of a vacancy, replace or properly
          equip any such device which has been removed or
          rendered inoperable, so as to provide operational smoke
          detecting devices for any new tenant; and

     (c)  notify tenants in writing, individually or through
          posting of a notice in a common area of the building,
          of the respective duties of owners and tenants under
          this section.

5.   Except as provided in paragraph (b) of subdivision three of
     this section, the tenant shall keep and maintain any smoke
     detecting device installed pursuant to this section in good
     repair and replace any such device which becomes inoperable
     during his occupancy.

6.   An owner need not furnish or install a smoke detecting
     device where one has already been installed, provided that
     (a) the type of such device and the manner of its
     installation comply with the provisions of this section and
     the standards prescribed by the state fire prevention and
     building code council, (b) the existing device is tested and
     found to be operational, and (c) the existence of such
     device in lieu of an owner-furnished device is noted on the
     records kept by the owner pursuant to paragraph (c) of
     subdivision three of this section.

7.   This section shall not apply within cities with a population
     of one million or more, provided however, any local law in
     such cities relating to smoke detecting devices shall
     provide for the installation and maintenance of smoke
     detecting devices in dwelling accommodations located in
     buildings owned as condominiums or cooperatives.


                             TITLE 3
                      SANITATION AND HEALTH

Sec. 75.  Water supply.

1.   In every multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, where space is provided for
     cooking there shall be in every apartment a proper sink with
     running water and with a two-inch waste and trap.

2.   The owner of every multiple dwelling shall provide proper
     appliances to receive and distribute an adequate supply of
     water, to and in every apartment or suite of rooms at all
     times of the year, during all hours. Failure in the general
     supply of water from the street service main shall not be
     construed as a failure on the part of the owner, if suitable
     appliances to receive and distribute such water have been
     provided in the dwelling.

3.   For dwellings three or more stories in height erected on or
     after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, and
     for all dwellings erected after January first, nineteen
     hundred fifty-one, such supply shall include both hot and
     cold water at all times of the year, during all hours,
     except that hot water service shall not be required by this
     section in a dwelling erected before April eighteenth,
     nineteen hundred twenty-nine, if the owner establishes to
     the satisfaction of the department that such service was not
     furnished or required before such date.

4.   No multiple dwelling shall be erected unless it is connected
     with a street service water main.

5.   No required sink shall be placed within any water-closet
     compartment or within any bathroom containing a water-
     closet.


Sec. 76.  Water-closet and bath accommodations.

1.   General requirements. This section shall apply to all
     dwellings whenever erected or converted except as herein
     provided.

     a.   No water-closet shall be installed, kept or maintained
          in any yard, court or other open space, and every water-
          closet or other receptacle to receive fecal matter,
          urine or sewerage, located in any such yard, court or
          other open space, shall be completely removed, and the
          place where they were located shall be disinfected
          under the direction of the department.

     b.   No water-closet shall be installed, kept or maintained
          in a cellar or basement unless it is provided for
          lawful cellar or basement living rooms, or is
          supplementary to the required water-closet
          accommodations.

     c.   No water-closet shall open directly into any kitchen or
          kitchenette in a multiple dwelling erected after April
          eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine.

     d.   Every water-closet compartment shall be at least two
          feet four inches in clear width and, except in a
          general toilet or bathroom, shall be enclosed with
          partitions which shall extend from the floor to the
          ceiling and which shall be plastered or tiled or
          covered with similar materials approved by the
          department.

     e.   The floor of every such compartment, bathroom or
          general toilet room shall be made waterproof with
          material approved by the department, and such
          waterproofing material shall extend six inches or more
          above the floor, except at doors.

     f.   The use of drip trays is unlawful.

     g.   No plumbing fixture or water-closet shall be enclosed
          wholly or in part with woodwork.

     h.   Every water-closet compartment, bathroom and general or
          public toilet room, and every other room containing one
          or more water-closets or urinals, except as
          specifically provided otherwise in this section, shall
          have at least one window opening upon a street or
          lawful court, yard or space above a setback. Every such
          window shall be at least three square feet in area and
          shall be made so that half its area can be readily
          opened.

     i.   No window shall be required when each such compartment,
          bathroom or general toilet room is located on the top
          story or underneath the bottom of a lawful shaft or
          court and is lighted and ventilated in either case by a
          skylight the roof of which contains at least three
          square feet of glazed surface and is arranged to be
          readily opened.

     j.   In lieu of a required window or skylight, it shall be
          lawful to install a system of ventilation, approved for
          construction and arrangement by the department, for
          water-closet compartments used for the business
          portions of any dwelling or for compartments containing
          water-closets, bathrooms or general toilet room in any
          dwelling. Such system of ventilation shall be
          maintained and operated continuously to provide at
          least four changes per hour of the air volume of each
          such water-closet compartment, bathroom or general
          toilet room daily from seven o'clock in the morning
          until seven o'clock at night in any business parts of
          such dwelling and from six o'clock in the morning until
          midnight in all parts used for dwelling purposes.

     k.   Every water-closet compartment or bathroom shall be
          provided with electricity and fixtures to light the
          same properly.

     l.   In a fireproof dwelling in which two or more rooms, all
          of which open directly upon the same public hall, are
          occupied exclusively by persons employed by the tenants
          thereof, there shall be provided for the occupants of
          such rooms and accessible therefrom directly or through
          such public hall, at least one water-closet compartment
          for the first four such rooms or fraction thereof and
          at least one additional water-closet compartment for
          each additional seven such rooms or fraction thereof,
          and no further water-closet accommodations for such
          rooms shall be required.

     m.   Water-closets may be placed together in a general
          toilet room they are supplementary to required water-
          closet accommodations or are solely for the use of
          business portions of the dwelling.

     n.   Except as herein provided if any living rooms in a
          fireproof dwelling open directly upon a public hall
          without any intervening room, foyer or passage, or if
          any provided suites of two living rooms in such a
          dwelling open upon a foyer giving direct access to a
          public hall, only one water-closet compartment shall be
          required for every three such living rooms on each
          story. Every such water-closet compartment shall be
          accessible to one or more of said rooms without passage
          through a public hall or any bedroom.

2.   Class A dwellings.

     a.   Every apartment in a class A dwelling, except old-law
          tenements, shall be provided with a water-closet which
          shall be placed in a compartment completely separated
          from any other water-closet.

     b.   Every apartment in a class A dwelling, except old-law
          tenements, shall also contain a bath, which may be in a
          separate compartment or together with the water-closet
          in a bathroom. There shall be access to at least one
          such compartment or bathroom from every bedroom without
          passing through any other bedroom.

3.   Class B dwellings.

     a.   The requirements of paragraph n, of subdivision one of
          this section shall not apply to a fireproof class B
          dwelling, every living room of which, except those used
          only by employees employed exclusively in the
          management and maintenance of such dwelling, has direct
          access to a public hall without passing through any
          other room, foyer or private hall and in which water-
          closet accommodations are provided in accordance with
          the provisions of this subdivision.

     b.   In such a fireproof dwelling there shall be on each
          story upon which there is any living room at least two
          water-closet compartments for the first twenty such
          living rooms or fraction thereof and at least one
          additional water-closet compartment for each additional
          fifteen such living rooms or fraction thereof, and no
          further water-closet accommodations for such rooms
          shall be required.

     c.   There shall be on each story of such fireproof
          dwelling, in addition to the water-closet
          accommodations required in paragraph n of subdivision
          one hereof, at least one water-closet compartment for
          every fifteen living rooms or fraction thereof not
          having access to a water-closet compartment without
          passage through a public hall or bedroom, and every
          such room shall have access to such a compartment
          through a public hall. If two or more such compartments
          be required on any story by the provisions of this
          paragraph, they may be placed in a general toilet room.

     d.   For every urinal supplied on any story of such
          fireproof dwelling on which seventeen rooms or more are
          occupied exclusively by males, one water-closet
          compartment less than the number otherwise required may
          be provided on such story; except that the number of
          water-closet compartments on such story may not be
          reduced to less than three-quarters of the number
          otherwise required.

     e.   The water-closet compartments on each story of such a
          dwelling shall be accessible from every living room on
          the story. Such compartments may be placed in one or
          more general toilet rooms.

     f.   In a non-fireproof class B dwelling there shall be at
          least one water-closet compartment and one wash basin
          for every seven sleeping rooms and there need not be
          more than that number except that there shall be at
          least one on each story. At least one such water-closet
          compartment and one wash basin on each story of such
          dwelling shall be accessible from every living room on
          the same story.

4.   Converted dwellings.

     a.   Every apartment in a class A converted dwelling shall
          be provided with a water-closet which shall be placed
          in a compartment or bathroom within each apartment
          completely separated from any other water-closet. Every
          such apartment shall also contain a bath or shower and
          a wash basin.

     b.   In every class B converted dwelling there shall be at
          least one water-closet compartment on any floor
          containing any room used for class B occupancy and at
          least one bathroom or shower room and one wash basin
          for every six persons and for any remainder of less
          than six persons who may lawfully occupy any room or
          rooms for class B occupancy.

     c.   Additional required water-closets and wash basins which
          are installed in order to comply with the provisions of
          this paragraph whether provided separately or in
          combination, shall be in a compartment separate and
          apart from every bath or shower required under the
          provisions of paragraph b, and each such additional
          required bath or shower shall be in a compartment
          separate and apart from every water-closet and wash
          basin required under the provisions of paragraph b,
          except that any such additional required water-closet,
          bath or shower or wash basin may be included in a
          single compartment containing any or all of such
          facilities, if such compartment is accessible only from
          or only within a room, apartment or suite of rooms and
          the occupant or occupants of such room, apartment or
          suite are exclusively entitled to use all such
          facilities contained in such compartment.

5.   Old-law tenements.

In every old-law tenement there shall be provided for the
exclusive use of each family at least one water-closet
compartment located within the dwelling. Such compartment shall
be constructed and ventilated as approved by the department but
such compartment shall be located on the same story as that on
which the apartment occupied by each such family is situated and
shall be equipped with lock and key. The provisions of this
subdivision shall not apply (a) to any dwelling which the
department of city planning certifies is in an area to be
acquired for a public improvement and for which a request for
acquisition has been submitted to the board of estimate by a
public agency; or (b) to any dwelling in an area for which an
urban renewal plan has been submitted to the planning commission,
as provided in section five hundred five of the general municipal
law, if the planning commission shall certify that compliance
with the provisions of this subdivision would be inconsistent
with the plan; or (c) for which a demolition permit has been or
shall be issued by the municipality pursuant to local law or
ordinance. The exemption provided in (a), (b), and (c) of this
subdivision shall be valid for a period of six months after the
date of the acquisition request or the date of the submission of
the urban renewal plan to the commission or the date of the
issuance of the demolition permit as the case may be. Such
exemption may be extended from time to time by the department
provided, however, that such exemption shall not extend beyond
November first, nineteen hundred sixty-five.

6.   Single room occupancy.

     a.   Every apartment used for single room occupancy shall
          have at least one bath or shower, one wash-basin and
          one water-closet for each six adult persons who may
          lawfully occupy the rooms in such apartment as provided
          in section two hundred forty-eight, and for any
          remainder of less than six persons. If additional baths
          or showers or water-closets are installed within an
          apartment in order to comply with the provisions of
          this paragraph each water-closet shall be in an
          enclosure separate and apart from every bathroom or
          shower room and each bath or shower shall be in an
          enclosure separate and apart from every water-closet.

     b.   There shall be access to each required water-closet and
          bathroom without passing through any sleeping room,
          except that any water-closet, wash-basin or bathroom
          which connects directly with any sleeping room shall be
          deemed to be available only to the occupants of such
          room and shall not be included in the computations for
          the required number of water-closets and bathrooms.

7.   Saving clause. No change need be made in the number,
     construction, arrangement, lighting or ventilation of water-
     closet compartments, bathrooms or general toilet rooms in
     any portion of any dwelling if the number, construction,
     arrangement, lighting or ventilation of such water-closet
     compartments, bathrooms or general toilet rooms was lawful
     on July first, nineteen hundred sixty-one.


Sec. 77.  Plumbing and drainage.

1.   In every multiple dwelling all liquid or water-borne waste
     from plumbing fixtures shall be conveyed by a house drain
     and house sewer to a street sewer or to a combined street
     storm-water main and sewer, unless no such sewers are
     available. It shall be unlawful to erect a multiple dwelling
     which is to be occupied by five families or more unless a
     connection is made with a street sewer or combined street
     storm-water main and sewer.

2.   For every multiple dwelling where neither kind of sewer is
     available, provision shall be made for disposing of such
     waste as may be required by local law.

3.   All roofs, terraces, shafts, courts, areas and yards in
     every multiple dwelling shall be properly graded, drained
     and connected with a street storm-water main or combined
     sewer and street storm-water main so that all storm water
     may pass freely into it, except that where no street storm-
     water main or combined sewer and street storm-water main
     exists, the department may permit the storm water from such
     areas and spaces to drain into a street gutter which leads
     to a natural channel or water course, or into a dry well.
     When required by the department, the shafts, courts, areas
     and yards shall be properly concreted. Every roof shall be
     so drained that all storm water shall be conveyed therefrom
     in a manner that will prevent dripping to the ground or the
     causing of dampness in walls, ceilings, yards, shafts or
     areas. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent
     the turfing over of any yard or court space or the planting
     of shrubs or trees therein when approved by the department.

4.   The owner of every multiple dwelling or part thereof shall
     thoroughly cleanse and keep clean at all times, and in good
     repair, the entire plumbing and drainage system including
     every water-closet, toilet and sink and every other plumbing
     fixture therein.

5.   Whenever the plumbing, sewerage or drainage of any multiple
     dwelling or part thereof or of the lot on which it is
     situated is in the opinion of the department in a condition
     or in its effect dangerous to life or health, the department
     may order or cause any such plumbing, sewerage or drainage
     to be purified, cleansed, disinfected, removed, altered,
     repaired or improved, or, as provided in section three
     hundred nine, take such other action as it may deem
     necessary to remove such danger to life or health.


Sec. 78.  Repairs.

1.   Every multiple dwelling, including its roof or roofs, and
     every part thereof and the lot upon which it is situated,
     shall be kept in good repair. The owner shall be responsible
     for compliance with the provisions of this section; but the
     tenant also shall be liable if a violation is caused by his
     own wilful act, assistance or negligence or that of any
     member of his family or household or his guest. Any such
     persons who shall wilfully violate or assist in violating
     any provision of this section shall also jointly and
     severally be subject to the civil penalties provided in
     section three hundred four.

2.   Whenever, the light, ventilation, or any matter or thing in
     or about a multiple dwelling or part thereof, or in or about
     the lot on which it is situated, is in the opinion of the
     department in a condition or in its effect dangerous to life
     or health, the department may order or cause any such light,
     ventilation, matter or thing to be repaired or improved or,
     as provided in section three hundred nine, take such other
     action as it may deem necessary to remove such danger to
     life or health.


Sec. 79.  Heating.

1.   Every multiple dwelling exceeding two stories in height and
     erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
     nine, and every garden-type maisonette dwelling project
     erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred fifty-four,
     shall be provided with heat. On and after November first,
     nineteen hundred fifty-nine, every multiple dwelling shall
     be provided with heat or the equipment or facilities
     therefor. During the months between October first and May
     thirty-first, such heat and the equipment or facilities
     shall be sufficient to maintain the minimum temperatures
     required by local law, ordinance, rule or regulation, in all
     portions of the dwelling used or occupied for living
     purposes provided, however, that such minimum temperatures
     shall be as follows: (a) sixty-eight degrees Fahrenheit
     during the hours between six o'clock in the morning and ten
     o'clock in the evening, whenever the outdoor temperature
     falls below fifty-five degrees Fahrenheit, notwithstanding
     the provisions of paragraph a of subdivision four of section
     three of this chapter, and (b) at least fifty-five degrees
     Fahrenheit during the hours between ten o'clock in the
     evening and six o'clock in the morning, whenever the outdoor
     temperature falls below forty degrees Fahrenheit. Nothing in
     this section shall be deemed to relieve any owner of the
     duty of providing centrally supplied or other approved
     source of heat prior to November first, nineteen hundred
     fifty-nine in any case where such heat is required by this
     chapter or any other law, ordinance, rule or regulation to
     be supplied in a dwelling prior to said date. The heating
     system in dwellings used for single room occupancy shall be
     in conformity with the requirements of section two hundred
     forty-eight.

2.   The provisions of subdivision one shall not apply to any
     dwelling (a) which is located in a resort community and is
     rented or occupied on a seasonal basis between April
     fifteenth and October fourteenth during any calendar year
     and is not occupied for living purposes during the remainder
     of such year, except that occupancy of any such dwelling by
     the family of a caretaker thereof or by the family of the
     owner thereof during the remainder of the year shall be
     permitted; or (b) which the department of city planning
     certifies is in an area to be acquired for a public
     improvement or for development or redevelopment and for
     which (1) a request for acquisition has been submitted to
     the mayor by a public agency or (2) a plan for a development
     or redevelopment project has received preliminary or first
     approval of the city planning commission; or (c) for which a
     demolition permit has been or shall be issued by the
     municipality pursuant to local law or ordinance.

3.   The exemption provided in subdivisions two (b) and two (c)
     of this section shall be valid for a period of six months
     after the date of the approval of the slum clearance or
     urban renewal plan or the date of such certification or the
     date of the issuance of the demolition permit, as the case
     may be, but such exemption may be extended from time to time
     by the department provided, however, that such exemption
     shall not extend beyond November first, nineteen hundred
     sixty-one.


Sec. 80.  Cleanliness.

1.   The owner shall keep all and every part of a multiple
     dwelling, the lot on which it is situated, and the roofs,
     yards, courts, passages, areas or alleys appurtenant
     thereto, clean and free from vermin, dirt, filth, garbage or
     other thing or matter dangerous to life or health.

2.   The owner of every multiple dwelling or part thereof shall
     thoroughly cleanse and keep clean at all times, to the
     satisfaction of the department, every public or service part
     thereof, including every room, passage, stair, floor,
     window, door, wall, ceiling, water-closet or toilet
     compartment, cesspool, drain, hall and cellar in such public
     or service part.

3.   All carpets and rugs which are permitted in any public part
     of a multiple dwelling shall be taken up and cleaned by the
     owner at least once a year or as much oftener as the
     department shall deem necessary.

4.   The interior surfaces of walls throughout every part of
     every multiple dwelling, whether in public or in tenant-
     occupied parts, shall be painted or papered and the ceilings
     kalsomined or painted by the owner. The walls and ceilings
     shall be rekalsomined, repapered or repainted by the owner
     whenever necessary to keep the said surfaces in a sanitary
     condition. No wall paper shall be placed upon such a wall or
     ceiling surface unless all existing wall paper shall be
     first removed therefrom and such wall or ceiling thoroughly
     cleaned and repaired.

5.   Any tenant shall be punishable as provided in section three
     hundred four for the existence of conditions in violation of
     the provisions of this chapter within his apartment to the
     extent that such conditions are caused by him, by members of
     his family or by his guests, and are under his control; but
     this provision shall not be construed to relieve the owner
     of any liability or duty under this section, except where a
     violation is caused and continued solely by the tenant or
     those under his control.

6.   Every dwelling erected after January first, nineteen hundred
     forty-seven, shall be so constructed as to be rat-proof. The
     agency of a city authorized by law to make rules
     supplemental to laws regulating construction, maintenance,
     use and area of buildings shall have the power to make rules
     and regulations to supplement the requirements of this
     subdivision.


Sec. 81.  Receptacles for waste matter.

1.   The owner of every multiple dwelling shall provide proper
     and suitable conveniences or receptacles for ashes, rubbish,
     garbage, refuse and other waste matter and shall arrange for
     the removal of such waste matter daily.

2.   No person shall place ashes, garbage, rubbish, filth, urine
     or fecal matter in any place in a multiple dwelling other
     than the place provided therefor, or keep any such matter in
     his apartment or upon his premises such length of time as to
     create a nuisance as defined in section three hundred nine.


Sec. 82.  Privacy.

In every apartment of three or more rooms in every class A
multiple dwelling erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
hundred twenty-nine, there shall be access to every living room
and bedroom without passing through any bedroom.


Sec. 83.  Janitor or housekeeper.

Whenever there are thirteen or more families occupying any
multiple dwelling and the owner does not reside therein, there
shall be a janitor, housekeeper or some other person responsible
on behalf of the owner who shall reside in said dwelling, or
within a dwelling located within a distance of two hundred feet
from said dwelling, and have charge of such dwelling, except that
where two or three multiple dwellings are connected or adjoining,
one resident janitor shall be sufficient. In every garden-type
maisonette dwelling project erected after April eighteenth,
nineteen hundred fifty-four, adequate personnel shall be provided
for the lawful care and maintenance of such project.


Sec. 84.  Construction standards for the control of noise.

On or before January first, nineteen hundred sixty-nine, the
department shall formulate, adopt, promulgate and thereafter from
time to time amend standards of sound retardation for the walls,
partitions and floors and ceilings between apartments and between
apartments and public spaces situated therein based on the direct
measurement of sound transmission loss determined in decibels for
various frequencies or in accordance with the ASTM sound
transmission class system or in accordance with such other
recognized method or system for measuring reduction of sound
transmission as the department may determine to be appropriate.
Any construction of a multiple dwelling commenced after January
first, nineteen hundred seventy shall comply with the standards
promulgated pursuant to this section in effect at the time of
commencement of such construction.

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