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NEW YORK STATE
MULTIPLE DWELLING LAW

Chapter 713 of the Laws of 1929, as amended


                            ARTICLE 1
              INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS; DEFINITIONS

Section             1.   Short title.
                    2.   Legislative finding.
                    3.   Application to cities, towns
                         and villages.
                    4.   Definitions.

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Sec. 1.   Short title.

This chapter shall be known as the "multiple dwelling law."


Sec. 2.   Legislative finding.

It is hereby declared that intensive occupation of multiple
dwelling sites, overcrowding of multiple dwelling rooms,
inadequate provision for light and air, and insufficient
protection against the defective provision for escape from fire,
and improper sanitation of multiple dwellings in certain areas of
the state are a menace to the health, safety, morals, welfare,
and reasonable comfort of the citizens of the state; and that the
establishment and maintenance of proper housing standards
requiring sufficient light, air, sanitation and protection from
fire hazards are essential to the public welfare. Therefore the
provisions hereinafter prescribed are enacted and their necessity
in the public interest is hereby declared as a matter of
legislative determination.


Sec. 3.   Application to cities, towns and villages.

1.   This chapter shall apply to all cities with a population of
     three hundred twenty-five thousand or more.

2.   The legislative body of any other city, town or village may
     adopt the provisions of this chapter and make the same
     applicable to dwellings within the limits of such city, town
     or village by the passage of a local law or ordinance
     adopting the same; and upon the passage of such local law or
     ordinance all of the provisions of articles one, two, three,
     four, five, ten and eleven and such sections or parts of
     sections of the other articles of this chapter as such local
     law or ordinance shall enumerate, shall apply to such city,
     town or village from the date stated in such law or
     ordinance.

3.   Except as herein otherwise specified, every multiple
     dwelling shall be constructed or maintained in conformity
     with other applicable laws.

4.   a.   Any city, town or village may make local laws,
          ordinances, resolutions or regulations not less
          restrictive than those provided in this chapter and may
          provide for their enforcement by legal or equitable
          actions or proceedings, and prescribe the penalties,
          sanctions and remedies for violations thereof. In the
          enforcement and administration of this chapter in a
          city of three hundred twenty-five thousand or more
          persons, the penalties, sanctions and remedies enacted
          by local law may be applied, notwithstanding their
          inconsistency with this chapter, or the provisions of
          this chapter.

     b.   In a city of three hundred twenty-five thousand or more
          persons, such local laws may authorize such actions or
          proceedings against the owner, lessee of a whole
          multiple dwelling, agent or other person having control
          of such dwelling, and any responsible party, or against
          the dwelling in rem. Such local laws may further
          authorize (1) that civil penalties may be enforced
          against the person liable therefor, and that in
          addition to the methods of enforcement for judgments
          established in the civil practice law and rules, a lien
          may be imposed against the premises and the rents
          therefrom; (2) that such civil penalties may be
          enforced against the dwelling by the imposition of a
          lien against the rents therefrom.

     c.   Such local laws may also authorize that all liens upon
          rents, whether authorized by state or local law, may be
          satisfied without further judicial proceedings by the
          collection of rents due or to become due.

5.   Whenever a provision of any local law, ordinance, resolution
     or regulation is more restrictive in a requirement for
     height, area or use, such local law, ordinance, resolution
     or regulation shall govern and take precedence over any
     lesser requirements of this chapter. When, however, the
     provisions of this chapter impose more restrictive
     requirements, the provisions of this chapter shall govern.

6.   A local law, ordinance, resolution or regulation shall not
     prohibit in any class A multiple dwelling erected after
     April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, in
     compliance with the provisions of this chapter, the use of
     wood for sleepers, grounds, nailing blocks, underflooring or
     finish flooring or, within apartments, doors with their
     assemblies, interior trim and assemblies of exterior
     windows, interior finish, closet fixtures, kitchen fixtures,
     shelving, cupboards, cabinets or wardrobes.

7.   Except as provided in subdivisions four and five, a local
     law, ordinance, rule or regulation shall not modify or
     dispense with any provision of this chapter.

8.   Wherever the word "city" occurs in this chapter, it shall be
     construed as though followed by the words "or town or
     village to which this chapter is applicable." The words
     "charter," "ordinance," "resolution," "regulation,"
     "building code," "department of health," "department of
     water supply," "fire department," "department," "board,"
     "city engineer," "corporation counsel," "city treasury," or
     "fire limits," shall be construed as if followed by the
     words "or corresponding authority of any city, town or
     village to which this chapter is applicable and in which the
     dwelling or location referred to is situated."

9.   Wherever in any statute of the state other than this
     chapter, or in any local law, ordinance, resolution or
     regulation, reference is made to the tenement house law in
     relation to a city to which this chapter is applicable, such
     reference shall be construed as applying to the provisions
     of this chapter. If reference be made therein to any section
     or other part of the tenement house law, such reference
     shall be construed as applying to the provisions of this
     chapter relating to the same subject matter as the said
     section or part. If reference be made therein to a "tenement
     house," such reference shall be construed as applying to a
     class A multiple dwelling.

10.  Wherever the date April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-
     nine, shall appear in this chapter such date shall be
     construed as if followed by the words "or the date when this
     chapter or any of its provisions became or becomes
     applicable to any city, town or village outside the City of
     New York."

11.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the
     following enumerated articles, sections and subdivisions of
     sections of this chapter shall not apply to the construction
     or alteration of multiple dwellings for which an application
     for a permit is made to the department after December sixth,
     nineteen hundred sixty-nine in a city having a population of
     one million or more which adopts or has adopted local laws,
     ordinances, resolutions or regulations providing protection
     from fire hazards and making provision for escape from fire
     in the construction and alteration of multiple dwellings and
     in other respects as protective as local law seventy-six of
     the laws of the city of New York for nineteen hundred sixty-
     eight and covering the same subject matter as the following:
     subdivisions twenty-five, twenty-seven, twenty-eight, thirty-
     five-c, thirty-six and thirty-nine of section four,
     subdivision three of section twenty-eight, sections thirty-
     six, thirty-seven, fifty, fifty-one, fifty-two, fifty-three,
     fifty-five, sixty, sixty-one, sixty-seven, subdivisions one,
     two, four and five of section seventy-five, article four,
     article five, article five-A, article six and article seven-
     B; except that after December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-
     nine where a multiple dwelling erected prior to December
     sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-nine is altered, or a building
     erected prior to December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-nine
     is converted to a multiple dwelling pursuant to a permit
     applied for to the department having jurisdiction, the
     foregoing articles, sections and subdivisions of sections
     shall remain applicable where a local law of such city
     authorizes such alteration or conversion to be made, at the
     option of the owner, either in accordance with the
     requirements of the building law and regulations in effect
     in such city prior to December sixth, nineteen hundred sixty-
     eight or the requirements of the building law and
     regulations in effect after such date, and the owner elects
     to comply with the requirements of the building law and
     regulations in effect prior to December sixth, nineteen
     hundred sixty-eight.


Sec. 4.   Definitions.

Certain words and terms when used in this chapter, unless the
context or subject matter requires otherwise, are defined as
follows:

1.   Wherever the word or words "occupied," "is occupied," "used"
     or "is used" appear, such word or words shall be construed
     as if followed by the words "or is intended, arranged or
     designed to be used or occupied."

2.   The word "shall" is always mandatory.

3.   The term "department" shall mean the department, bureau,
     division or other agency charged with the enforcement of
     this chapter.

4.   A "dwelling" is any building or structure or portion thereof
     which is occupied in whole or in part as the home, residence
     or sleeping place of one or more human beings.

5.   A "family" is either a person occupying a dwelling and
     maintaining a household, with not more than four boarders,
     roomers or lodgers, or two or more persons occupying a
     dwelling, living together and maintaining a common
     household, with not more than four boarders, roomers or
     lodgers. A "boarder," "roomer" or "lodger" residing with a
     family shall mean a person living within the household who
     pays a consideration for such residence and does not occupy
     such space within the household as an incident of employment
     therein.

6.   A "private dwelling" is any building or structure designed
     and occupied exclusively for residence purposes by not more
     than two families.

     A building designed for and occupied exclusively by one
     family is a "single-family private dwelling. "

     A building designed for and occupied exclusively by two
     families is a "two-family private dwelling. "

     Private dwellings shall also be deemed to include a series
     of one-family or two-family dwelling units each of which
     faces or is accessible to a legal street or public
     thoroughfare provided that each such dwelling unit is
     equipped as a separate dwelling unit with all essential
     services, and also provided that each such unit is arranged
     so that it may be approved as a legal one-family or two-
     family dwelling.

7.   A "multiple dwelling" is a dwelling which is either rented,
     leased, let or hired out, to be occupied, or is occupied as
     the residence or home of three or more families living
     independently of each other. On and after July first,
     nineteen hundred fifty-five, a "multiple dwelling" shall
     also include residential quarters for members or personnel
     of any hospital staff which are not located in any building
     used primarily for hospital use provided, however, that any
     building which was erected, altered or converted prior to
     July first, nineteen hundred fifty-five, to be occupied by
     such members or personnel or is so occupied on such date
     shall not be subject to the requirements of this chapter
     only so long as it continues to be so occupied provided
     there are local laws applicable to such building and such
     building is in compliance with such local laws. A "multiple
     dwelling" shall not be deemed to include a hospital,
     convent, monastery, asylum or public institution, or a
     fireproof building used wholly for commercial purposes
     except for not more than one janitor's apartment and not
     more than one penthouse occupied by not more than two
     families. For the purposes of this chapter "multiple
     dwellings" are divided into two classes: "class A" and
     "class B."

8.   a.   A "class A" multiple dwelling is a multiple
          dwelling which is occupied, as a rule, for permanent
          residence purposes. This class shall include tenements,
          flat houses, maisonette apartments, apartment houses,
          apartment hotels, bachelor apartments, studio
          apartments, duplex apartments, kitchenette apartments,
          garden-type maisonette dwelling projects, and all other
          multiple dwellings except class B multiple dwellings.

     b.   A "garden-type maisonette dwelling project" is a series
          of attached, detached or semi-detached dwelling units
          which are provided as a group collectively with all
          essential services such as, but not limited to, water
          supply and house sewers, and which units are located on
          a site or plot not less than twenty thousand square
          feet in area under common ownership and erected under
          plans filed with the department on or after April
          eighteenth, nineteen hundred fifty-four, and which
          units together and in their aggregate are arranged or
          designed to provide three or more apartments.

9.   A "class B" multiple dwelling is a multiple dwelling which
     is occupied, as a rule transiently, as the more or less
     temporary abode of individuals or families who are lodged
     with or without meals. This class shall include hotels,
     lodging houses, rooming houses, boarding houses, boarding
     schools, furnished room houses, lodgings, club houses,
     college and school dormitories and dwellings designed as
     private dwellings but occupied by one or two families with
     five or more transient boarders, roomers or lodgers in one
     household.

10.  A "converted dwelling" is a dwelling (a) erected before
     April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, to be
     occupied by one or two families living independently of each
     other and subsequently occupied as a multiple dwelling, or
     (b) a dwelling three stories or less in height erected after
     April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, to be
     occupied by one or two families living independently of each
     other and subsequently occupied by not more than three
     families in all, with a maximum occupancy of two families on
     each floor in a two story building and one family on each
     floor in a three story building, in compliance with the
     provisions of article six of this chapter, including section
     one hundred seventy-a of said article. A converted dwelling
     occupied as a class A multiple dwelling is a class A
     converted dwelling; every other converted dwelling is a
     class B converted dwelling.

11.  A "tenement" is any building or structure or any portion
     thereof, erected before April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, which is occupied, wholly or in part, as the
     residence of three families or more living independently of
     each other and doing their cooking upon the premises, and
     includes apartment houses, flat houses and all other houses
     so erected and occupied, except that a tenement shall not be
     deemed to include any converted dwelling. An "old-law
     tenement" is a tenement existing before April twelfth,
     nineteen hundred one, and recorded as such in the department
     before April eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine,
     except that it shall not be deemed to include any converted
     dwelling.

12.  A "hotel" is an inn having thirty or more sleeping rooms.

13.  A "rooming house" or a "furnished room house" is a multiple
     dwelling, other than a hotel, having less than thirty
     sleeping rooms and in which persons either individually or
     as families are housed for hire or otherwise with or without
     meals. An inn with less than thirty sleeping rooms is a
     rooming house.

14.  A "lodging house" is a multiple dwelling, other than a
     hotel, a rooming house or a furnished room house, in which
     persons are housed for hire for a single night, or for less
     than a week at one time, or any part of which is let for any
     person to sleep in for any term less than a week.

15.  An "apartment" is that part of a multiple dwelling
     consisting of one or more rooms containing at least one
     bathroom and arranged to be occupied by the members of a
     family, which room or rooms are separated and set apart from
     all other rooms within a multiple dwelling.

16.  "Single room occupancy" is the occupancy by one or two
     persons of a single room, or of two or more rooms which are
     joined together, separated from all other rooms within an
     apartment in a multiple dwelling, so that the occupant or
     occupants thereof reside separately and independently of the
     other occupant or occupants of the same apartment. When a
     class A multiple dwelling is used wholly or in part for
     single room occupancy, it remains a class A multiple
     dwelling.

17.  A "public hall" is a hall, corridor or passageway within a
     building but outside of all apartments and suites of private
     rooms. A "public vestibule" is a corridor, not within an
     apartment or suite of private rooms, providing access to a
     stair or elevator and not wider than seven feet nor longer
     than twice the width of the stair or elevator shafts opening
     upon it. A "public room" or "public part" of a dwelling is a
     space used in common by the occupants of two or more
     apartments or rooms, or by persons who are not tenants, or
     exclusively for mechanical equipment of such dwelling or for
     storage purposes.

18.  A "living room" is a room which is not a public hall, public
     vestibule, public room or other public part of a dwelling.
     Every room used for sleeping purposes shall be deemed a
     living room. Dining bays and dinettes fifty-five square feet
     or less in floor area, foyers, water-closet compartments,
     bathrooms, cooking spaces less than fifty-nine square feet
     in area, and halls, corridors and passageways entirely
     within an apartment or suite of rooms shall not be deemed
     living rooms. "Floor space" shall mean the clear area of the
     floor contained within the partitions or walls enclosing any
     room, space, foyer, hall or passageways of any dwelling.

19.  A "dining bay," "dining recess" or "dinette" is a recess
     used for dining purposes off a living room, foyer or
     kitchen.

20.  A "foyer" is a space within an apartment or suite of rooms
     used as an entrance hall directly from a public hall.

21.  A "dormitory" in a lodging house is any place used for
     sleeping purposes. A "cubicle" is a small partially enclosed
     sleeping space within a dormitory with or without a window
     to the outer air.

22.  "Premises" shall mean land and improvements or appurtenances
     or any part thereof.

23.  "Structure" shall mean a building or construction of any
     kind.

24.  "Alteration," as applied to a building or structure, shall
     mean any change or rearrangement in the structural parts or
     in the egress facilities of any such building or structure,
     or any enlargement thereof, whether by extension on any side
     or by any increase in height, or the moving of such building
     or structure from one location or position to another.

25.  A "fireproof multiple dwelling" is one in which the walls
     and other structural members are of incombustible materials
     or assemblies meeting all of the requirements of the
     building code and with standard fire-resistive ratings of
     not less than one of the following sets of requirements:

     a.   For any multiple dwelling more than one hundred feet in
          height, four hours for fire walls, party walls, piers,
          columns, interior structural members which carry walls,
          girders carrying columns, and for exterior walls other
          than panel walls; three hours for other girders, fire
          partitions, floors including their beams and girders,
          beams, roofs, floor fillings, and stairway enclosures;
          and two hours for exterior panel walls.

     b.   For any multiple dwelling one hundred feet or less in
          height, the provisions of preceding paragraph a and
          shall apply, except that the minimum requirements shall
          be three hours for exterior walls other than panel
          walls, which shall be two hours; two hours for
          protection of interior columns; one and one-half hours
          for roofs and for floors and beams; provided, however,
          that for a multiple dwelling three stories or less in
          height, the requirement for all floors and the roof
          shall be one hour.

26.  The term "fireproof," as applied to a part or parts of a
     building, means such part or parts are made of incombustible
     materials with standard fire-resistive ratings not less than
     those required for the corresponding part or parts of a
     fireproof dwelling.

27.  A "non-fireproof dwelling" is one which does not meet the
     requirements for a fireproof dwelling.

28.  A "frame dwelling" is a dwelling of which the exterior walls
     or any structural parts of such walls are of wood. A
     dwelling which would not otherwise be a frame dwelling shall
     not be deemed a frame dwelling by reason of the existence on
     such dwelling of frame oriel, bay or dormer windows, frame
     porches not more than one story in height, or frame
     extensions not more than one story in height and fifty-nine
     square feet in area if such windows, porches or extensions
     were erected prior to April thirteenth, nineteen hundred
     forty.

29.  The term "fire-retarded," as applied to a part or parts of a
     building, means such part or parts are either covered with
     metal lath plastered with two or more coats of mortar or
     otherwise protected against fire in a manner approved by the
     department with materials of standard fire-resistive ratings
     of at least one hour. Fireproofing shall always be accepted
     as meeting any requirement for fire-retarding.

30.  "Fire-stopping" means the closing of all concealed draft
     openings to form an effectual fire barrier at floors,
     ceilings and roofs with brick, concrete, gypsum, asbestos,
     mineral wool, rock wool, metal lath with cement or gypsum
     plaster, or other approved incombustible materials.

31.  A "lot" is a parcel or plot of ground which is or may be
     occupied wholly or in part by a dwelling, including the
     spaces occupied by accessory or other structures and any
     open or unoccupied spaces thereon, but not including any
     part of an abutting public street or thoroughfare.

     a.   A "corner lot" is a lot of which at least two adjacent
          sides abut for their full length upon streets or public
          places not less than forty feet in width. That portion
          of a corner lot in excess of one hundred feet from any
          street on which the lot abuts shall be considered an
          interior lot.

          An "interior lot" is a lot which is neither a corner
          lot nor a through lot.

     b.   The "front" of a lot is that boundary line which abuts
          on the street, or, if there be more than one street
          abutting, on the street designated by the owner. The
          "rear" of a lot is the side opposite the front.

     c.   The "depth" of a lot is the distance from the front of
          the lot to the extreme rear line of the lot. In the
          case of an irregular-shaped lot the mean depth shall be
          taken.

     d.   A "through lot" is a lot running through from street to
          street whose front and rear lines abut for their entire
          lengths upon streets or open public places; provided,
          however, that when either of said lines exceeds the
          other in length by more than twenty per centum, that
          part of the lot contiguous to the excess length of the
          longer line shall be deemed an interior lot. The
          department may designate which part of the longer line
          is the excess in length and make any reasonable
          interpretation of the part of the lot to be regarded as
          contiguous to such excess.

     e.   Lots or portions of lots shall be deemed "back to back"
          when they are on opposite sides of the same part of a
          rear line common to both and the opposite street lines
          on which the lots front are parallel with each other or
          make an angle with each other of not more than forty-
          five degrees.

32.  A "rear yard" is an open space on the same lot with a
     dwelling between the extreme rear line of the lot and the
     extreme rear wall of the dwelling. A "side yard" is a
     continuous open space on the same lot with a dwelling
     between the wall of a dwelling and a line of the lot from
     the street to a rear yard or rear line of a lot. A "court"
     is an open space other than a side or rear yard, on the same
     lot as a dwelling. A court not extending to the street or
     rear yard is an "inner court". A court extending to the
     street or rear yard is an "outer court".

32a  "A rear yard equivalent" is an open area which may be
     required on a through lot as an alternative to a required
     rear yard.

33.  The "curb level", for the purpose of measuring the height of
     any portion of a building, is the level of the curb at the
     center of the front of the building; except that where a
     building faces on more than one street, the curb level is
     the average of the levels of the curbs at the center of each
     front. Where no curb elevation has been established the
     average elevation of the final grade adjoining all exterior
     walls of a building, calculated from grade elevations taken
     at intervals of ten feet around the exterior walls of the
     building, shall be considered the curb level, unless the
     city engineer shall establish such curb level or its
     equivalent.

34.  A "street wall" of a building, at any level, is the wall of
     the building nearest to a street line abutting the property.

35.  a.   The "height" of a dwelling is the vertical
          distance from the curb level to the level of the
          highest point of the roof beams; except that, in the
          case of pitched roofs, it is the vertical distance from
          the curb level to the mean height level of the gable or
          roof above the vertical street wall. When no roof beams
          exist or when there are structures wholly or partly
          above the roof, the height shall, except as otherwise
          expressly provided, be measured from the curb level to
          the level of the highest point of any such structure;
          except that where every part of the building is set
          back more than twenty-five feet from a street line, the
          height shall be measured from the average grade
          elevation calculated from the final grade elevations
          taken at intervals of ten feet around the exterior
          walls of the building.

     b.   Except as otherwise provided in section two hundred
          eleven, the following superstructure shall not be
          considered in measuring the height of a dwelling;
          parapet walls or guard railings, other superstructures
          twelve feet or less in height and occupying fifteen per
          centum or less of the area of the roof, elevator
          enclosures thirty feet or less in height used solely
          for elevator purposes, enclosures fifty feet or less in
          height used solely for tanks, cooling towers or other
          mechanical equipment; and, when approved by the
          department, pergolas, spires, chimneys, other
          ornamental treatments, roof gardens and playgrounds.

     c.   When on the main roof of any fireproof multiple
          dwelling erected after April eighteenth, nineteen
          hundred twenty-nine, in which one or more passenger
          elevators are operated, a penthouse dwelling is erected
          the height of which does not exceed twelve feet and the
          walls of which are set back as provided in this
          paragraph, the height of such multiple dwelling shall
          be measured as though no such penthouse had been
          erected thereon. Such penthouse walls shall be set back
          from the outer face of the front parapet wall at least
          five feet, from the outer face of the yard parapet wall
          at least ten feet, and from the inner face of every
          other parapet wall at least three feet; except that the
          setback so required from any parapet wall facing any
          court or yard or recess therefrom but not facing any
          street may be reduced one-third for each ten per centum
          by which the area of such court or yard exceeds the
          required minimum area thereof at the highest level of
          such parapet wall, and the setback so required from any
          parapet wall facing any street may be reduced one foot
          for each foot that such parapet wall is set back from
          the building line established by law at the highest
          level of such parapet wall, provided that in the
          opinion of the department safe and sufficient passage
          is provided to and from every part of the main roof.
          Any penthouse wall which may be flush with the inner
          face of any parapet wall may be flush with the outer
          face thereof.

     d.   If a rear multiple dwelling is erected after April
          eighteenth, nineteen hundred twenty-nine, on the same
          lot as a front multiple dwelling, and the depth of the
          yard of the front multiple dwelling is more than sixty
          feet and the lowest point of such yard is below the
          curb level and below the floor of a cellar of the front
          multiple dwelling or of the lowest story thereof if
          there is no cellar, the height of the rear multiple
          dwelling shall be measured from such lowest point
          instead of from the curb level.

36.  A "story" is a space between the level of one finished floor
     and the level of the next higher finished floor, or, if the
     top story, of the space between the level of the highest
     finished floor and the top of the highest roof beams, or, if
     the first story, of the space between the level of the
     finished floor and the finished ceiling immediately above.
     For the purpose of measuring height by stories in multiple
     dwellings erected after April eighteenth, nineteen hundred
     twenty-nine, one additional story shall be added for each
     twelve feet or fraction thereof that the first story exceeds
     fifteen feet in height, and for each twelve feet or fraction
     thereof that any story above the first story exceeds twelve
     feet in height.

37.  A "cellar" in a dwelling is an enclosed space having more
     than one-half of its height below the curb level; except
     that where every part of the building is set back more than
     twenty-five feet from a street line, the height shall be
     measured from the adjoining grade elevations calculated from
     final grade elevations taken at intervals of ten feet around
     the exterior walls of the building. A cellar shall not be
     counted as a story.

38.  A "basement" is a story partly below the curb level but
     having at least one-half of its height above the curb level;
     except that where every part of the building is set back
     more than twenty-five feet from a street line, the height
     shall be measured from the adjoining grade elevations
     calculated from final grade elevations taken at intervals of
     ten feet around the exterior walls of the building. A
     basement shall be counted as a story in determining height,
     except as provided in paragraph e of subdivision six of
     section one hundred two.

39.  A "section" of a multiple dwelling is a part thereof, other
     than an apartment or suite of rooms, separated as a unit
     from the rest of such dwelling by fireproof construction.

40.  A "shaft" is an enclosed space extending through one or more
     stories of a building connecting a series of openings
     therein, or any story or stories and the roof, and includes
     exterior and interior shafts whether for air, light,
     elevator, dumbwaiter or any other purpose.

41.  A "stair" is a flight or flights of steps together with any
     landings and parts of public halls through which it is
     necessary to pass in going from one level thereof to
     another.

42.  a.   A "fire-tower" is a fireproof stair, enclosed in
          fireproof walls, without access to the building from
          which it affords egress other than by a fireproof self-
          closing door opening on a communicating balcony or
          other outside platform at each floor level.

     b.   A "fire-stair" is a fireproof stair, enclosed in
          fireproof walls, within the body of the building which
          it serves, to which access may be had only through self-
          closing fireproof doors.

     c.   A "fire-escape" is a combination of outside balconies
          and stairs providing an unobstructed means of egress
          from rooms or spaces in a building.

     d.   A "panel wall" is a non-bearing wall in skeleton
          construction erected between columns or piers and
          wholly supported at each story.

43.  Window dimensions shall always be taken between stop-beads
     or, if there are no stop-beads, between the sides, head and
     sill of the sash opening.

44.  The term "owner" shall mean and include the owner or owners
     of the freehold of the premises or lesser estate therein, a
     mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of rents,
     receiver, executor, trustee, lessee, agent, or any other
     person, firm or corporation, directly or indirectly in
     control of a dwelling. Whenever a multiple dwelling shall
     have been declared a public nuisance to any extent pursuant
     to paragraph b of subdivision one of section three hundred
     nine of this chapter and such declaration shall have been
     filed as therein provided, the term "owner" shall be deemed
     to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all
     the officers, directors and persons having an interest in
     more than ten per cent of the issued and outstanding stock
     of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial
     owner thereof, if such owner be a corporation other than a
     banking organization as defined in section two of the
     banking law, a national banking association, a federal
     savings and loan association, The Mortgage Facilities
     Corporation, Savings Banks Life Insurance Fund, The Savings
     Banks Retirement System, an authorized insurer as defined in
     section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust
     company or other corporation organized under the laws of
     this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at
     least twenty savings banks or a subsidiary corporation all
     of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company
     or other corporation.

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